PMP



 

ITTO Flow And Things

“Project Management Plan”

Scope Management Plan

Requirements Management Plan

Scope Baseline

Schedule Management Plan

Schedule Baseline

Cost Management Plan

Cost Baseline

Quality Management Plan

Process Improvement Plan

Human Resource Management Plan

Communication Management Plan

Risk Management Plan

Procurement Management Plan

Stakeholder Management Plan

Deliverable Delivery

Deliverables

Verified Deliverables

Accepted Deliverables

Final Product or Service Transition

Work Performance “Data” to “Information” to “Reports”

Work Performance Data

Work Performance Information

Work Performance Reports

Change request executed

Change Requests

Change Control Tools

Approved Change Requests

Change Log

Approved Change Request Review

Validated Changes

Work Performance Reports

Audits and Inspections

Inspection

Inspections and Audits

Quality Audits

Risk Audits

Procurement Audits

Change request communicated to stakeholders

Change Requests

Change Control Tools

Change Log

Communication Methods

Change request reported as implemented

Change Requests

Change Control Tools

Approved Change Requests

Approved Change Request Review

Validated Changes

Work Performance Reports

Information Management Systems

Change request to change a Purchase Order

Inspections and Audits

Procurement Performance Reviews

Change Requests

Approved Change Requests

Contract Change Control System

Records Management System

Work Performance Information

Work Performance Reports

Information Management Systems

Communication Methods

Data Collection And Distribution tools and Management Reports

Project Management Information System (PMIS)

Project Management Software

Information Management Systems

Performance Reporting

Payment Systems

Records Management System

Group interaction Activities

Facilitation Techniques

Meetings

Interviews

Focus Groups

Facilitated Workshops

Group Creativity Techniques

Group Decision-Making Techniques

Networking

Negotiation

Virtual Teams

Training

Team-building Activities

Recognition and Rewards

Observation and Conversation

Bidder Conference

Other Plans

Requirements Management Plan

Process Improvement Plan


Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
0 0 0

Description

Description



Process Group
Knowledge Area
1 Initiating

*Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.

2 Planning

*Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action rquired to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.

3 Executing

*Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.

4 Monitoring & Controlling

*Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.

5 Closing

*Those processes performed to finalize all activiities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.

1 Integration

*Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.

1 Develop Project Charter

The result or output of this process is the Project Charter.  Once issued by the project initiator or sponsor, it brings the project to life and grants the PM authority and needed resources to kick off the project.

Components include:

  • The purpose or justification for the project.
  • Summaries of the budget and milestone schedule.
  • High-level conditions or requirements.
  • High-level service/product characteristics and project description.
  • Assigned PM, responsibility, and authority.

Note: needed inputs to create the Project Charter include Project Statement of Work (SOW), Business Case, and Agreements, other sources may also include Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) and Organizational Process Assets (OPAs). (MAD 10/26/2015)

You are a PM (Project Manager) in a large company which employs a PMO (Project Management Office). You are asked to prepare a document that will describe and communicate the scope and potential benefits of a certain project. You as the PM will utilize a template project charter document to prepare a project charter for the sponsor and stakeholders to review and approve to start the project.

Once approved the project charter will not be updated, it will be utilized as an input document for other processes to start and develop the Project Management Plan, other subsidiary project plans and other important project documents.

  1. The Develop Project Charter, once documented, is in essence the birth certificate of the project and constitutes the first document in the lifespan of the project. (MAD 10/24/2015)
  2. The few processes that generate only one output: Develop Project Charter, Develop Project Management Plan, Plan Schedule management, Plan Cost management, Plan Human Resource Management, Plan Risk management, Identify Risk, Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis, Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, and Identify Stakeholders. (MAD 10/26/2015)
  • Project Statement of Work

    Project Statement of Work

    The Project statement of work is the detail from the customer or sponsor that has all the information concerning the scope, schedule, and cost information that the customer requires for a successful project.

     

    The project statement of work can be the customers project scope statement or it could be a component of the customers WBS Dictionary.

     

    The project statement of work contains all the detail required by the project manager to determine if he has the resources required, to complete the project successful.

     

    The project statement of work detail can be compared to the detail in the WBS Dictionary created in the “Create WBS” process.

     

    Project Statement of Work Video

    A statement of work typically addresses these subjects.

     

    • Purpose: Why are we doing this project? A purpose statement attempts to answer this.
    • Scope of Work: This describes the work to be done and specifies the hardware and software involved.
    • Location of Work: This describes where the work is to be performed, including the location of hardware and software and where people will meet to do the work.
    • Period of Performance: This specifies the allowable time for projects, such as start and finish time, number of hours that can be billed per week or month, where work is to be performed and anything else that relates to scheduling.
    • Deliverables Schedule: This part lists and describes what is due and when.
    • Applicable Standards: This describes any industry specific standards that need to be adhered to in fulfilling the contract.
    • Acceptance Criteria: This specifies how the buyer or receiver of goods will determine if the product or service is acceptable, usually with objective criteria.
    • Special Requirements: This specifies any special hardware or software, specialized workforce requirements, such as degrees or certifications for personnel, travel requirements, and anything else not covered in the contract specifics.
    • Type of Contract/Payment Schedule: The project acceptance will depend on if the budget available will be enough to cover the work required. Therefore a breakdown of payments by whether they are up-front or phased will usually be negotiated in an early stage.
    • Miscellaneous: Many items that are not part of the main negotiations may be listed because they are important to the project, and overlooking or forgetting them could pose problems for the project.

     

    To actually see an example type the statement into Google. You will have more examples than you need. also you may be able to find some examples that relate to your product

    The Statement of work is one of the components of the WBS Dictionary. The statement of work in the WBS is the scope of the component it is describing. It is used in the procurement statement of work and is therefore a component of every Project statement of work that is received from a customer which is the customers procurement statement of work.

     

    The project Statement of work includes the business need. of the customer. A business need is also included in the Business Case which is the performing organizations business need.

     

    The “Statement of Work” is an integral part of the WBS dictionary and describes the work package scope in detail, it could be called the work package “Scope Statement”.

     

  • Business Case

    The business case is looking at the impact of the project to the business entity. Looking at metrics (measurements) that can be evaluated against competing  projects or other opportunities. ROI (return on investment) is a common metric for determining whether the project meets the minimum requirements for moving forward with the project.

     

    Depending of the project, the business case may be a legal requirement needed to be satisfied by the business. It could be a cultural or political requirement that needs to be satisfied.

    The business case must satisfy the sponsors minimum requirements to proceed to with the project.

    Your company refines oils from flowers for use in the perfume industry. A new federal law requires that your company now needs to meet minimum pollution standards. The business case is to meet those requirements.

     

    Your company builds custom storage sheds for sale to private individuals. The business case is built around the ROI of each project. Your company requires a minimum of 25% return to proceed with any new project.

    The business case also includes the business need which is also contained in the Project Statement of Work.

     

    This is a unique input to this process. It is not used anywhere else in the process chart.

  • Agreements

    Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

     

    Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

    You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

     

    Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

    There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurements process.

     

    The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

  • Enterprise Environmental Factors

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

     

    Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

     

    Organization structure

    Organization temperament

    Organization culture

    Government Regulations

    Industry Standards

    Market ever-changing conditions

    Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

    Industry Quality standards

    Organization Quality standards and controls

    Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

    You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

     

    The EEF’s that should be considered are:

    Columbian internal EEF’s

    • Environmental laws
    • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
    • Culture of the Columbian labor
    • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
    • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

    Culture of existing project staff

    Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

    As you can tell this could go on and on.

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 27 separate processes.

  • Organizational Process Assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

     

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

     

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    38 out 0f 47 processes have OPA’s as an input to the process. Only 9 processes do not have OPA’s as an input.

  • Expert Judgement

    Expert Judgement is a tool and technique that is used in 28 different processes. The expert judgment that is required for use in each process is different and depends on the skills required to produce the output of the process under examination.

     

    Although the term “expert judgement”, is used 28 times, the definition of what expert judgment is required will be different for each of the processes involved.

    The expert judgement required may be delivered by a project team member, or be someone who is contracted to assist in the project. SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) may be on retainer in some industries, PMO’s (Project Management Office) may have SME’s available from departments within the performing organization.

    Expert Judgement is seeking out those that are considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) in the areas under consideration for the Project Charter. The range of examples would be huge and touch every aspect of the Charter

  • Facilitation Techniques

    The Simple description is excellent. To add anything I would say that any communication, conversation or collaboration concerning the Project Charter would be considered “Facilitation Techniques”.

    You are a PM in a Small construction company, The Owner and you are approached by a potential customer for a new project. The customer relays many ideas and scope related details concerning the potential project. You commit the ideas to writing and solicit further details to prepare a project charter. This is using “Facilitation Techniques”.

    Facilitation Techniques is a tool and technique that is used only in Develop project charter and Develop project management plan.

  • Project Charter

    A project charter serves as a high level template for your project. It is used in order to gain approval to begin work, and to requisition the money and assets required to complete the project. It is considered a the first step, to start the project. Without a completed and authorized Project Charter a project does not exist.

    The project charter document, is the first document produced by a project. Once it has been approved then the project planning may begin.

    The project charter should include the following items:

    • High level scope.
    • High level schedule
    • High level budget

    And all the details that are available concerning these items at the time.

    Also all the Business requirements for the performing organization to be successful.

    There are numerous free examples of a project charter on the internet. I will not reproduce one here,

     

    It is important to note that many companies have a template they like to use for project charters and these are unique for their purposes, industry or products.

    The Project Charter is a unique document. It should not be updated once it is completed and authorized. It is used as an input to eight (8) other processes to provide high level input to, Develop Project Management Plan, scope, time, cost, risk and stakeholder analysis.

*The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

2 Develop Project Management Plan

Develop Project Management Plan [Video]

 

The “Project Management Plan” contains all the plans and baselines literally. This feature of the project management plan means that all the requirements for execution, monitoring and controlling and closing are spelled out in detail in this Record or File. The project management plan is not a project document by definition, Project Records and anything that is not called a plan or baseline.

The Project Management Plan is Progressively Elaborated or iteratively developed during the project. The term to use is “Progressively Elaborated”. There are nineteen (19) outputs of “Project Management Plan Updates”, the use of this output is to update any of the plans or baselines with more definitive information. Project Management Plan Updates is not used for project Changes. All changes use the output, “Change Request”. Change Requests are then processed through “Perform Integrated Change Control” process.

 

 

The Project Management Plan is a voluminous file.  Examples on the internet are available and the size and scope is determined by the size and scope of the project itself.

There are many companies that continue to develop the project charter and utilize the project charter as the project management plan. For smaller projects this may serve the needs of the organization. Any project of size and complexity would be served better by following all the processes in the PMP process chart.

  • Project Charter

    The Project Charter is an input to the Develop Project Management Plan because it gives the basis of the project. The Project Charter has articulated a high level Scope, Schedule, and a Budget. Also depending on the developer of the charter, it could contain, risks, quality requirements, preassigned project team members and many other insights and facts concerning the project. These insights and facts in the Project Charter will provide the outline of the Project management Plan, with Metrics required to be met, and high level, Scope, Schedule and Budget requirements.

    You are a new hire Project Manager at a tool and die company. You have been assigned as the project for a new project and have just been handed the signed project charter for your project. This document gives much of the detail you require to get started with the Project Management Plan and many of the subsidiary management plans.

    There is no better information written about the new project then in the Project Charter.

    Project Charters should be comprehensive but some companies have templates that are used. Their projects are very similar and they produce very similar deliverables.

    Every organization has unique OPA’s and EEF’s.  When looking at the Project Management Life Cycle, it is important to understand the true requirements of the Porject Charter.

  • Outputs from other Processes

    “Outputs from other processes” are all the Plans, Baselines, that are produced during the Project.

     

    The Project Management plan includes two categories of documents:

     

    • All Plans. Any document that is a plan. Not only the other 9 knowledge area plans, but any document that is titled a plan.
    • All Baselines. There are three:
      1. Scope Baseline
      2. Schedule Baseline
      3. Cost Baseline

     

    All other documents in the project other than Plans and Baselines are simply referred to as project documents.

     

    There is a question that pops up on the exam at times:

     

    Which of the following items is not a project document:

    1. Schedule Baseline
    2. Risk Register
    3. Constraints Log
    4. Activity List

     

    Answer A The Schedule Baseline is part of the Project Management Plan

    A discussion is held between the customer and the project manager. In this discussion the project manager becomes aware of the importance of a feature that should be emphasized more dramatically in the deliverable.

     

    Due to this conversation the project manager updates the project scope statement and informs the project team. This update did not change the project management plan, but just defines the scope to a better level of understanding.

    This input is unique. It is the only input that is created from  outputs from other processes.

  • Enterprise Environmental Factors

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

    Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

    Organization structure

    Organization temperament

    Organization culture

    Government Regulations

    Industry Standards

    Market ever-changing conditions

    Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

    Industry Quality standards

    Organization Quality standards and controls

    Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

    You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

    The EEF’s that should be considered are:

    Columbian internal EEF’s

    • Environmental laws
    • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
    • Culture of the Columbian labor
    • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
    • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

    Culture of existing project staff

    Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

    As you can tell this could go on and on.

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 27 separate processes.

  • Organizational Process Assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    38 out of 47 processes have OPA’s as an input to the process. Only 9 processes do not have OPA’s as an input.

  • Expert Judgement

    Expert Judgement is a tool and technique that is used in 28 different processes. The expert judgment that is required for use in each process is different and depends on the skills required to produce the output of the process under examination. Although the term “expert judgement”, is used 28 times, the definition of what expert judgment is needed will be different for each of the processes involved.

    The expert judgement required may be delivered by a project team member, or be someone who is contracted to assist in the project. SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) may be on retainer in some industries, PMO’s (Project Management Office) may have SME’s available from departments within the performing organization.

    Expert Judgement is seeking out those that are considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) in the areas under consideration for the Project Management Plan. The range of examples would be huge and touch every aspect of the Project Management Plan.

  • Facilitation Techniques

    The Simple description is excellent. To add anything I would say that any communication, conversation or collaboration concerning the Project Management Plan would be considered “Facilitation Techniques”.

    As the Project Manager working in a Medium size corporation, developing a Project Management Plan is challenging. Having conversations, meetings and brainstorming sessions with SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) will assist you in understanding the requirements to be met to succeed with the project.

    Facilitation Techniques is a tool and technique that is used only in Develop project charter and Develop project management plan.

  • Project Management Plan

    The most important file or record in the project. This document is composed of all the plans and baselines that the project produces. This file is first base-lined, meaning it is of sufficient detail to start the execution of the project.

     

    As each plan or baseline is improved or made more explicit then the project management plan is improved and updated. This process is continued throughout the project,

     

    The Project Management Plan includes the following:

    Plans:

    • Scope Management plan
    • Requirements management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Cost management plan
    • Quality management plan
    • Resource management plan
    • Communications management plan
    • Risk management plan
    • Procurement management plan
    • Stakeholder management plan

    Baseline:

    • Scope baseline
    • Schedule baseline
    • Cost Baseline

    Additional Components:

    • Change management plan
    • Configuration management plan
    • Performance measurement baseline
    • Project life cycle
    • Development approach
    • Management reviews

    The project is new, but the project manager has enough information to start execution on the deliverable.

     

    The Kick Off meeting is held the assignments are dispersed. The project management plan will be updated and defined continuously till the deliverable is accepted and delivered to the customer.

    The Project Management plan is created in this process. It is an input to 23 other processes.

     

    When the Project Management Plan is an input, it also brings in with it all other plans and Baselines.

*The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.

  • 3 Direct & Manage Project Work

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of ALL project physical work. This process includes all the work of the processes of the Execute Process Group.

     

    The purpose of this process is to produce the deliverable as outlined in the Project Management Plan. One of the outputs of this process is indeed the “Deliverable“. All the work on the deliverable is done in this process, all other processes in the execute process group, support this process.

     

    A second very important output here is “Work Performance Data“. All the data collected throughout the execution is contained in this output. This output becomes the input to Nine (9) other processes. All the processes in Monitoring and Controlling except those in the Integration Knowledge area.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of the Project Management Plan.

     

    Execution means the work on the deliverable. All the physical work is done here. Planning and Monitoring and Controlling is done in other process groups.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the only process where the deliverable is produced. All the work is done in execution. All approved change requests are implemented and completed in this process.

    • Expert Judgement

      Expert Judgement is used to determine how to execute the Project management plan. What skills are required and what personnel are needed to produce the deliverable? These are the questions posed to experts.

       

      The first expertise utilized is that of the project manager and the project team. If further expertise is required the project manager can solicit from the following:

      Consultants

      Stakeholders

      Sponsor or Customer

      Groups or Organizations with specific knowledge or skills

      The Project Manager realizes that the project team lacks the appropriate skills to measure to six sigma standards. He then puts in a change request for six sigma training for the team and puts in a requisition for a six sigma Black Belt.

      Expert Judgement is a tool or technique in 28 processes. The Project manager does not need to be an expert in all things to be the project manager. He should be a expert in Project Manager.

    • Project Management Information System (PMIS)

      The PMIS gives access to the following systems or documents:

      Scheduling Tool

      Work Authorization System

      Configuration Management System

      Data Collection and Distribution System

      A KPI (key Performance Indicator) reporting system may be attached to the PMIS system.

      A new company has been using a manual PMIS system but has decided to implement a data collection system that will generate KPI’s and have data bases that can hold the configuration management system and scheduling tool.

       

      Each performing organization should have a system that fits its needs and requirements.

      The same systems that are used in the PMIS are also used in the change control tools in the “Perform integrated change control” process.

    • Meetings

      Meetings are used to discuss requirements and assignments in the execution of the project management plan. Attendees will be all affected stakeholders, Meetings are held for many reasons:

      Information Exchange

      Brainstorming

      Decision Making

      Meetings should be planned with an agenda and be kept as short as possible to complete the purpose it was scheduled. Virtual meetings can also be held to include those from distance.

       

      The project manager will call a kick off meeting at the point at which the project management plan is baselined.

      Meetings are not considered best practices. Meetings can be productive or just wasting time. It is dependent on the preparation of the project manager and the focus during the meeting to stay on point.

    • Deliverables

      A deliverable is defined as any product, service or result that is required to be built, designed, or accomplished by the Project Management Plan.

       

      The deliverable will be judged according to the metrics included in the Project management plan in particular the Quality management Plan, (Quality Metrics).

      The deliverable will be inspected in control quality and validate scope. The Project manager must deliver the deliverable to the satisfaction of the customer. It should meet all the metrics specified in the Project Management Plan.

      The deliverable can be delivered at one time or it can be delivered one part at a time. This is very common in software projects.

    • Work Performance Data

      Work performance data is the raw data collected from the project during the execution phase of the project. The raw data includes cost collection of labor and material used, number of defects, quality measurements.

       

      Other examples of raw data are key performance indicators, technical performance measurements.

       

      All these raw data numbers are passed to the Monitor and Control Processes.

      A cost accounting system is an example of collecting raw performance data.

      This is the only output for raw data. Many of the processes state that they collect information and allude to the fact that they calculate that data, they do not!!! . All processes in the execute area move the data collected to the “Direct and Manage project work” process, and it is passed to the Monitor and Control processes through the output “Work Performance Data”.

    • Change Requests

      What should be placed on a Change Request Document? Material Changes or Modification to:

      Material (not to be confused with progressively elaborated updates)

       

      A Deliverables

       

      • Corrective Action (Found by the project team)
      • Preventive Action (Proactive Steps) education, training, tools
      • Defect Repair (Not Found by project team)

       

      B Project Documents

       

      C Project Management Plan (includes all Plans and Baselines)

       

       

      In the middle of the project an engineer discovers a discrepancy in the size of the cable holding a sign in place. He knows this is out of specifications to the blueprints. The engineer opens up a change request and articulates the problem and the potential fix. He then sends it to the “Perform integrated Change control“.

      There are 16 processes that have change request as an output.

       

      Anytime a change affects Scope, Schedule, or Budget. That change must be placed on a change request.

       

      All Material repairs must also be placed on a change request. These changes are one of the following:

      Corrective Action

      Preventive Action

      Defect Repair

    • Project Management Plan Updates

      This is the progressive elaboration or iterative development of the Project Management Plan.

       

      The Project Management Plan updates includes all the updates to any of the Plans or Baselines in the project.

      The project manager discovered that he needs to purchase or lease a new crane because the crane the company owns is to small for the project. He knows that similar projects were on the way. He needs to update the cost management plan to reflect the usage of the new crane.

      Any plan and any baseline can be updated using this output.

    • Project Documents Updates

      Project Document Updates are utilized when any project document needs updating.

      Some organizations specify certain documents that can only be updated through the change control system. If this is the case, then the procedures should be followed.

       

      Some documents include:

      Logs

      Registers

      Assumptions and Constraints

      NEVER PLANS OR BASELINES

      It was determined that an risk assumption was a fact. Therefore the assumptions log needs to be updated; also the risk register needs updating and the contingent plan needs to be put into action.

      Care needs to be taken when updating documents. If the update needs to be communicated to critical stakeholders then the update would be placed on a change control document.

    *The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

  • 4 Monitor & Control Project Work

    Monitoring and Controlling the project is critical to project success.  In this process we track, review, and report the progress. We need to be sensitive to the life-cycle of the project.

     

    Collection and Reporting are the two main functions of this process. As reflected by the main output of “Work Performance Reports“.

    The project manager is responsible for the collection and reporting of the project parameters. Tracking and evaluating the current state of the project and reporting the same to stakeholders is critical to project success.

    Within this process we can act on items that are discovered that need to be changed, by using a change request.

     

    But the biggest value of this process is to communicate the project life-cycle metrics to the team and stakeholders in the other processes, that can act on their critical areas of expertise, This is done through the “Work Performance Reports”.

    • Expert Judgement

      Expert Judgement us utilized in the Monitor and Control area to review the work performance data and calculate work performance information. Then collate the information into a format that can be disseminated to the stakeholders. Using meetings to collaborate with SME’s will assist in getting the proper information to the stakeholders.

       

      Work performance Reports are the window that gives the team, and stakeholders, the vision of where the project currently is, in comparison to the project management plan and any other project circumstances.

      The project sponsor just received his weekly project management reports. He notices the project is 20 % ahead of budget and 30 % ahead of schedule. He is happy to see this but fears something is being overlooked. His experience tells him to look into the scope of the project to make sure all the features are being addressed.

       

      The sponsor is exercising his expert judgement as he has done many similar projects in the past.

      There are 28 processes with Expert Judgement. The expert judgement that is required is each of those processes requires different skills and experience.

       

      The project manager, depending on his experience he may be an expert in many processes but may still need to bring in SME’s in areas where he knows he needs good advice.

    • Analytical Techniques

      Analytical Techniques are applied in project management to forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.

      Examples of analytical techniques used in projects are:

      • Regression analysis
      • Grouping methods
      • Causal analysis
      • Root cause analysis
      • Forecasting Methods
      • Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
      • Fault Tree analysis (FTA)
      • Reserve analysis
      • Trend analysis
      • Earned value management
      • Variance analysis

      After receiving the work performance information from the 9 other monitor and control processes, it is now time to collate the information into the work performance reports. Some of the information is conflicting, therefore the project manager will call a meeting to discuss and resolve any differences in the schedules of the analytical techniques.

      There are 7 processes that utilize “Analytical Techniques” as a tool and technique. Many of the same techniques are used in these processes.

    • Project Management Information System (PMIS)

      Project Management Information System (PMIS) is a EEF (Enterprise Environmental Factor).

      PMIS can be a manual or a automated information collection and reporting system. It should include the following but can include many other items or metrics:

      • Scheduling Tools
      • Costing Tools
      • Resourcing Tools
      • Performance Metrics (indicators)
      • Databases
      • Project Records
      • Financial Metrics

      Every organization has its own way of communicating the performance of the projects to the project team and affected stakeholders. PMIS is a conduit between two processes:

      Direct and manage project work And

      Monitor and Control project work

      The purpose of the PMIS is to communicate the performance of the project and to keep the project on scope, schedule, and cost.

      There are 6 different systems in project management, one of which is the PMIS:

      1. Project Management Information Systems
      2. Project management Software
      3. Information Management Systems
      4. Performance Reporting
      5. Payment Systems
      6. Records Management Systems

      Go to ITTO Flow and things to review the above flow.

    • Meetings

      Meetings are used to collaborate and make decisions.

       

      Meetings can be Face-to-face, virtual, formal or informal. They will be attended by all stakeholders or SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).

       

      Who decides who attends these meetings. The Project Manager must invite, manage and control who is invited to certain meetings. The meetings should be focused, with an agenda so that the meeting will accomplish the goal of that meeting,

      The project manager will call meetings to review the progress with the CCB and other concerned stakeholders. These periodic meetings will determine the frequency and detail that will go into the reports. Also the project manager may determine who should be on the list of recipients.

      There are 17 processes that have Meetings in their Tool and Techniques. Meetings are held casually between stakeholders all during the project, and these are not restricted to the 17 processes.

    • Change Requests

      What should be placed on a Change Request Document? Material Changes or Modification to:

      Material (not to be confused with progressively elaborated updates)

      A Deliverables

      • Corrective Action (Found by the project team)
      • Preventive Action (Proactive Steps) education, training, tools
      • Defect Repair (Not Found by project team)

      B Project Documents

      C Project Management Plan (includes all Plans and Baselines)

       

      During review of the metrics received from the 9 other processes that produce “work performance information”, it was discovered that some of the metrics conflicted.

       

      The project manager called a meeting and cane to agreement on the metrics that would be shared.

      There are 16 processes that have change request as an output.

      Anytime a change affects Scope, Schedule, or Budget. That change must be placed on a change request.

      All Material repairs must also be placed on a change request. These changes are one of the following:

      Corrective Action

      Preventive Action

      Defect Repair

    • Work Performance Reports

      Reports include written documentation intended to communicate project progress to another stakeholder; memo’s, reports, emails, budgets, schedules, variance analysis are examples.

       

      Work Performance Reports are produced to demonstrate the projects progress or lack of progress. It can be any information in any format.

       

      The project manager must have a distribution list on proprietary information. Using the stakeholder and communication management plans will assist the project manager.

       

      Reports produced are shared with the project team and affected stakeholders

      There are 5 different processes that receive reports. Each of these processes have a different requirement for the information and a different way of distributing the reports.

    • Project Management Plan Updates

      This is the progressive elaboration or iterative development of the Project Management Plan.

      The Project Management Plan updates includes all the updates to any of the Plans or Baselines in the project.

      The project manager discovered that he needs to purchase or lease a new crane because the crane the company owns is to small for the project. He knows that similar projects were on the way. He needs to update the cost management plan to reflect the usage of the new crane.

      Any plan and any baseline can be updated using this output.

    • Project Documents Updates

      Project Document Updates are utilized when any project document needs updating.

      Some organizations specify certain documents that can only be updated through the change control system. If this is the case, then the procedures should be followed.

      Some documents include:

      Logs

      Registers

      Assumptions and Constraints

      NEVER PLANS OR BASELINES

      It was determined that an risk assumption was a fact. Therefore the assumptions log needs to be updated; also the risk register needs updating and the contingent plan needs to be put into action.

      Care needs to be taken when updating documents. If the update needs to be communicated to critical stakeholders then the update would be placed on a change control document.

    *The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.

  • 5 Perform Integrated Change Control

    Perform integrated change control is a very active process in project management. If the 47 processes were a river the “Perform Integrated Change Control” process would be a whirlpool. All material changes to a project flow through this process.

    Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests: approving changes and managing changes to deliverable’s, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan: and communicating their disposition.

    Material changes to:

    Deliverables

    Organizational Process Assets

    Project Management Plan

    Project Documents

    Discovery of a mistake in the scope of the project was discovered and rectification is required. A change request would be completed and sent to the CCB within the process (Perform integrated change control).

    Changes may be requested by any stakeholder, but changes should be placed on a change request to be formally input into the perform integrated change control process. These procedures should be followed by all stakeholders and should be performed throughout the project life cycle.

    • Expert Judgement

      Expert Judgement is especially valuable to Perform Integrated Change Control. The change control board can use the expertise of team members or other stakeholders.

       

      Stakeholders that could help include:

      Customers, Sponsor

      Professionals

      SME’s Subject matter experts

       

      A change request was submitted for the improvement in the process upgrade materials on a building to reduce the cost. A SME (Subject Matter Expert) a consultant was  retained to review such requests. It was determined by extensive research that the new material requested was within scope. Therefore the change request was approved the the project enjoyed a significant reduction in cost.

      SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) can improve the performance of a project.

       

      But the most value a SME will give to the project is preventing major conceptional errors. Scope is always the most important part of a project. Understanding, controlling, and improving the scope of a project should always be in the forefront of the project managers thoughts. SME’s are critical to assisting in this area.

    • Meetings

      Meetings in this area are called Change Control Meetings. The CCB (Change Control Board) must meet to consider all the change requests. They must either approve or reject each change request.

       

      These meetings may include any relevant stakeholders or SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) to evaluate and determine the disposition of the change request.

      A change request was submitted to broaden the scope of the Data Base to be used in a program. This expansion was to assist in future programs for the same customer and improve the performance for future projects.

       

      The customer, sponsor and project manager were invited to the change control meeting. After review of the proposal many changes were approved. Budget, and Schedule, and Scope were changed and the contract over the project was also improved in favor of the performing organization.

      Meeting can be held at any level in the organization. if any significant information is discussed or agreed to between stakeholders it is advisable to document the decisions in a document or a plan, one that can be distributed to the affected stakeholders.

    • Change Control Tools

      The Change Control Board (CCB) is *A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating , approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions.

       

       

      Change Control Tools EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors)

       

      A Project Management System

       

      B Project Management Information System (PMIS)

       

      C Configuration Management System

      (Integrated Change Control)

      1. Configuration Identification
      2. Configuration status Accounting
      3. Configuration verification and audit

       

      D Change Control System

       

       

      What should be placed on a Change Request Document? Material Changes or Modification to:

       

      A Deliverables

      • Corrective Action (Found by the project team)
      • Preventive Action (Proactive Steps) education, training, tools
      • Defect Repair (Not Found by project team)

      B Project Documents

      C Project Management Plan (includes all Plans and Baselines)

       

      All changes must go through the Change control tools to verify that the changes fit within the parameters required by the customer.

       

      Using the Configuration Management System will confirm the validity of the change request. All other systems are utilized to implement and communicate the changes.

      All changes to the project must be made with understanding to the needs of the stakeholders including the organizational and environmental considerations and constraints.

    • Approved Change Requests

      An approved change request has been processed through the CCB (Change Control Board) and is now implemented as procedures dictate.

       

      Approved Change requests will be reflected in all the project files, Project Management Plan and Project Documents must be updated to reflect the Approved Change.

       

      The Approved Change will be implemented in the Direct and manage Project Work Process, and the implementation will be reviewed by the Control Quality process.

      A major change request was approved.

       

      All the project records will be changed to reflect this change: All Plans will be updated. All affected Documents will be updated.

       

      The change log will be updated and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

      Very small changes may not go through the Perform Integrated change control process. This is a gray area and must also be controlled. Also these items must still be documented and sighed off by relevant stakeholders.

       

      All material changes to the project must go through the Perform Integrated change control process. Unfortunately many do not.

       

      Many project team members will make changes without using a change request. It is the responsibility of the Project manager to police the team and other stakeholders to assure all scope, schedule and cost items, and any other updates to the pan are reflected and approved starting with a change request.

    • Change Log

      The change log is utilized to document and communicate every change request that has been approved or rejected.

       

      The approved change requests should document the changes to Scope, Schedule, or Cost baselines, They should reflect, if possible, the affected stakeholders. They should also state the change in the scope statement that has occurred.

       

      The change Log should be updated and communicated immediately after each change.

      A change request was received from the customer. The change was out of scope and out of budget. The CCB rejected the change immediately.

       

      This rejection was placed on the Change Log and communicated to the stakeholder within hours of the rejection of the change request being received so that discussion and resolution could be made.

      The change Log is a dynamic document. This document should have all the detail required to understand the change and the implications to the project.

       

      The rejected change requests should be documented as to why they have been rejected and the stakeholders affected by the rejection.

       

      There should be a template that is used and is easy to understand and review.

    • Project Management Plan Updates

      This is the progressive elaboration or iterative development of the Project Management Plan.

       

      The Project Management Plan updates includes all the updates to any of the Plans or Baselines in the project.

      Metrics have just been identified that will help the Quality Management Plan. Therefore we will use the Project Management Plan Updates to update the Quality Management Plan.

       

      These updates only definitize the metrics required by our current plan, These metrics are not a change to any parameter, they only define the metrics better.

      There are 19 processes that utilize this output. This output can be used by any project team member at any time with the authorization of the Project Manger.

       

      The Project manager has the responsibility to know when to use this output compared to the output of change request.

    • Project Documents Updates

      Project Document Updates are utilized when any project document needs updating.

       

      Some organizations specify certain documents that can only be updated through the change control system. If this is the case, then the procedures should be followed.

      A new stakeholder was identified. Add the stakeholder to the stakeholder register with all supporting data.

       

      A new risk has arose due to a new law being passed. Add the new risk to the Risk Register with all supporting data.

       

      It was discovered that the Project Scope Statement was not defined completely. Update the Project Scope Statement.

      There are 32 processes that utilize activity as part of the process outputs.

       

      Keeping the documents updated and having the appropriate review by the affected stakeholders will keep the project on scope, schedule and budget.

    *The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition.

6 Close Project or Phase

The project manager must close all lose ends before he formally closes a project. The filing of the project files or documents should only be done when all these files have been properly reviewed and approved.

 

The deliverable should be delivered per the Project Management Plan, the details of the delivery should be spelled out. An easy hand-off, or a complex transition may be required. Success can be determined by this transition.

 

The key benefit of closing properly is to leave a trail of the project activities that can be followed by subsequent projects. Lessons learned is a valuable asset to the company. If a similar project occurs then these lessons learned will be critical to understanding the scope, schedule, cost, not to mention the other plans in all the knowledge areas.

The project just completed the “Validate Scope” process. The customer was pleased with the results and is pushing for delivery. Upon reviewing the delivery requirements in the project management plan it is noted that a two week testing period before delivery is required, to verify all the features of the deliverable are working.

 

The project manager will follow the plan as required. The customer will be advised and if any change is required it will be discussed and a change request will be completed and sent through “Perform Integrated Change Control”.

 

The change can be output in several processes.

This is one of the most important processes of a project. Why? In this process we leave a trail of breadcrumbs to the whole project. These closed file documents are the asset of the performing organization. These files are the only remnants of the project. They have incredible value.

 

Never treat this process lightly.

  • Expert Judgement

    Expert judgement is utilized in the closing process to make sure that the closing process is done as required by the project management plan. There may be standards or regulations that need to be followed in this closing.

     

    The project manager may use other stakeholders or consultants if their expertise is required. He may also use the PMO (Project Management Office), or professional organizations.

    The project manager is delivering a complicated software package that requires accounting knowledge. He brings in one of his team members to demonstrate and instruct the customer on the features of the software. He is better equipped to discuss the technical aspects in accounting terms .

    If the project manager is not an expert in the deliverable, He will need to rely on others to guide him through the scope of the project.

     

    In reality most project managers become experts in the deliverable he is managing.

  • Analytical Techniques

    Analytical Techniques are applied in project management to forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.

    Examples of analytical techniques used in projects are:

    • Regression analysis
    • Causal analysis
    • Root cause analysis

    Analytical techniques are used to record final project performance measurements for technical, schedule, and budget performance. The causes of any variances should be identified and recorded in a lessons learned document.

    There are 7 processes that utilize “Analytical Techniques” as a tool and technique. Many of the same techniques are used in these processes.

  • Meetings

    Meetings are used to collaborate and make decisions.

    Meetings can be Face-to-face, virtual, formal or informal. They will be attended by all stakeholders or SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).

    Who decides who attends these meetings. The Project Manager must invite, manage and control who is invited to certain meetings. The meetings should be focused, with an agenda so that the meeting will accomplish the goal of that meeting,

    The project manager is uncertain as to the location of delivery of his 10 ton deliverable and the cost of possible transportation. He calls a meeting of the sponsor, customer to discuss and resolve.

    There are 17 processes that have Meetings in their Tool and Techniques. Meetings are held casually between stakeholders all during the project, and these are not restricted to the 17 processes.

  • Final Product or Service Transition

    The project management plan is followed to deliver the final product or service.

     

    Variances from the project management plan must be placed on a change request.

    Deliverable is delivered

    This output should be the best documented activity in the project. This is the final activity in the project. It is the subject of dreams of the project manager.

     

    Challenges here show a lack of attention to detail.

  • Organizational Process Assets Updates

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are updated in this process with several items:

    • Project Files – documentation of the projects activities, project management plan (All Plans and Baselines) documents ( all other documents)
    • Project or phase closure documents – those items that are peculiar to the closing process. Like reviews and project verification documentation.
    • Historical Information – Lessons Learned that include risks, issues, and special techniques.

    The project manager must personally review and update the OPA’s. This can be delegated but he should realize that he will be held responsible by the next person to review these closed records.

    Of all the 14 outputs of this ITTO this is the most important as it is updating all the the projects documents.

*The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.

2 Scope

*Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.

 
  • 1 Plan Scope Management

    The creation of a scope management plan is to provide guidance and direction on how the scope will be managed during the project.

    The scope management plan is a subsidiary to the project management plan.

     

    The project manager has seen alternatives to the project that have features different to the current project, He decides he wants to investigate the current scope, He first reviews the scope management plan for direction in his investigation.

    Scope must be determined before any schedule or budget can be completed. Developing a scope statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary are critical to project success.

    • Project Management Plan

      The Input “Project Management Plan” contains all the projects Plans and Baselines. There are in excess more than 11 Plans; and 3 Baselines. There is a plan for each knowledge area and a baseline for Scope, Time, and Cost. Therefore, a question regarding any subject can be researched in the project management plan, and if the answer is not found, it must be researched elsewhere and then the project management plan must be updated.

      Review of the project management plan will assist the updating of the Scope Management Plan. All the plans and baselines must co-ordinate their activities, schedules and costs.

      Each plan and baseline is a part of the project management plan. There is a circular effect, the project management plan cannot be done till the scope management plan is complete. Therefore this input will assist in updates to scope management plan.

    • Project Charter

      The Project Charter is an input to the Plan Scope Management process because it gives a high level or possibly specific scope of the project. The Project Charter has articulated a high level Scope, Schedule, and a Budget. Also depending on the developer of the charter, it could contain, risks, quality requirements, preassigned project team members and many other insights and facts concerning the project. These insights and facts in the Project Charter will provide the outline of the Scope management Plan, with Metrics required to be met, and high level, Scope, Schedule and Budget requirements.

      The Scope of the project is first articulated in the “Project Statement of Work”. Then included in the Project Charter at a high level of understanding.

       

      The project manager uses this information to plan how he will approach the project scope statement and create the WBS.

      The project charter is considered a high level project management plan in some companies, as it has all the ingredients of the project management plan.

    • Enterprise Environmental Factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 27 separate processes.

    • Organizational Process Assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      38 out of 47 processes have OPA’s as an input to the process. Only 9 processes do not have OPA’s as an input.

    • Expert Judgement

      Expert judgement in the Plan Scope Management process would include those who have special knowledge of the deliverable, industry or competition. It would include those with specialized education, skills, experience, or training that could assist the project manger to understand how to create the scope management plan.

       

      Expert Judgement is a tool and technique that is used in 28 different processes. The expert judgment that is required for use in each process is different and depends on the skills required to produce the output of the process under examination. Although the term “expert judgement”, is used 28 times, the definition of what expert judgment is needed will be different for each of the processes involved.

      Your project is to create a new headache medicine delivery system. The project manager brings in SME’s to assist in his planning.

      Expert Judgement is seeking out those that are considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) in the areas under consideration.

       

       

    • Meetings

      Meetings are held by the project manger to discuss how the scope will be developed, maintained and updated. The PM will bring in all the stakeholders that can contribute to this effort.

      A meeting is called by the project manger to go over a list of features the last project provided to the customer. This project is for another customer with different requirements. The basic product is the same.

       

      In the meeting the PM brings in the SME’s to discuss the feartures.

      Meeting can be held at any level in the organization. if any significant information is discussed or agreed to between stakeholders it is advisable to document the decisions in a document or a plan, one that can be distributed to the affected stakeholders.

    • Scope Management Plan

      The scope management plan is component of or a subsidiary of the project management plan. The scope management plan describes how the scope will be determined, by what process and by what means. Who should be involved. Items that could be included are:

      • Process for preparing the project scope statement
      • Process for creation of the WBS and WBS Dictionary
      • Process for maintaining updating the Scope
      • Scope acceptance metrics or procedure
      • Scope change proceedures

      The scope management plan will be followed when creating the scope baseline.

      The scope management plan is an input in the next three processes.

    • Requirements Management Plan

      The requirements management plan is part of the project management plan. It describes how we will collect the requirements for the scope of the deliverable.

       

      Although it is only used once as an input in the collect requirements process. It is valuable to go through the thought process to uncover all requirements

      The project manger brings in SME’s to determine how to find all the requirements for the headache medicine delivery system.

      This output plan is only used once in collect requirements.

    *The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

  • 2 Collect Requirements

    Collect requirements is the process of collecting and documenting ALL stakeholder requirements. It is important to speak to all stakeholders when looking for these requirements. Even try to find things that the customer does not know he wants. Also look for alternatives to the requirements as this will also expose possible requirements.

    Knowing all the requirements will assist in managing the project scope. These requirements will also help with scheduling and costing.

    Requirements can be broken down into categories, to mention a few:

    • Business requirements
    • Stakeholder requirements
    • Solution requirements
    • Part to Part requirements
    • Transition requirements
    • Special skill requirements
    • Quality requirements

    The project manager is unfamiliar with the customer, so he has a meeting with the prior PM who has had dealing with the customer to determine any special needs the customer has required in the past. He also reviews the lessons learned to determine special circumstances in the last project with this customer.

    Collect Requirements is the same as Voice of the Customer in Six Sigma or  when doing the tool “Quality Function Deployment”.

     

    The Industry and product must be taken into consideration when collecting requirements as there may be SME’s required.

    • Scope Management Plan

      The scope management plan is component of or a subsidiary of the project management plan. The scope management plan describes how the scope will be determined, by what process and by what means. Who should be involved. Items that could be included are:

      • Process for preparing the project scope statement
      • Process for creation of the WBS and WBS Dictionary
      • Process for maintaining updating the Scope
      • Scope acceptance metrics or procedure
      • Scope change proceedures

      The scope management plan will be followed when creating the scope baseline.

      The scope management plan may give us insight into requirements.

    • Requirements Management Plan

      The requirements management plan is part of the project management plan. It describes how we will collect the requirements for the scope of the deliverable.

      Although it is only used once as an input in the collect requirements process. It is valuable to go through the thought process to uncover all requirements

      The project manger brings in SME’s to determine how to find all the requirements for the headache medicine delivery system.

      This output plan is only used once in collect requirements.

    • Project Charter

      A project charter serves as a high level template for your project. It is used in order to gain approval to begin work, and to requisition the money and assets required to complete the project. It is considered a the first step, to start the project. Without a completed and authorized Project Charter a project does not exist.

      The project charter document, is the first document produced by a project. Once it has been approved then the project planning may begin.

      There are numerous free examples of a project charter on the internet. I will not reproduce one here,

      It is important to note that many companies have a template they like to use for project charters and these are unique for their purposes, industry or products.

      The Project Charter is a unique document. It should not be updated once it is completed and authorized. It is used as an input to eight (8) other processes to provide high level input to, Develop Project Management Plan, scope, time, cost, risk and stakeholder analysis.

    • Stakeholder Management Plan

      The Stakeholder management plan is used to understand stakeholder communication requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement in order to assess and adapt to the level of stakeholder participation in requirements activities.

      Understanding the stakeholders may influence the PM to either have a stakeholder participate in the process or not.

      This document is not available at the beginning of this process.

    • Stakeholder Register

      The stakeholder register contains all the details of all the identified stakeholders.

      This is an important document, It is updated throughout the project, if more stakeholders are identified the same analytics need to be completed to know where they stand.

      Some of the items that are placed on the stakeholder register are:

      • Identification Information
      • Assessment information
      • Stakeholder classification

      The project manager will create the stakeholder register as soon as the project charter is signed. He will invite those stakeholders or SME’s to participate that can make a contribution.

      The PM must be diplomatic when creating a stakeholder register as there may be sensitive information that is required for the project concerning the stakeholder. Therefore there may be a private stakeholder attachment that may be created and only available to small select group.

    • Group Decision-Making Techniques

      Several group activities can be organized to identify project and product requirements. Some of the group creativity techniques that can be used are;

      • Brainstorming
      • Nominal group technique
      • Idea/Mind mapping
      • affinity diagram
      • Multicriteria decision analysis

      While the project manager is having a brainstorming session with his team he uses an affinity diagram to separate the ideas into groups for further analysis and more detailed discussion.

      Depending on the industry or product there may be special and or unique meetings to discuss the unique features and technical requirements of a particular deliverable. These meeting may require thinking out of the box formats.

    • Benchmarking

      Benchmarking are Best Practices

      Benchmarking is comparing the project teams practices against those of other organizations. Looking for the best process to conduct the project. Using the best practices will improve productivity and improve schedule and cost.

      There is a new process the project manager is unfamiliar with in the new project. He brings in SME’s to review the process and suggest best practices to complete the process.

      Six Sigma programs are always trying to improve process without reinventing the wheel. This tool is looking for practices that are already defined, utilized and proven.

      This is one of the cheapest ways to improve the project performance.

    • Facilitated Workshops

      Key Stakeholders

      Facilitated workshops bring together key stakeholders to define product requirements, Workshops are a excellent way to bring in SME’s in the technical areas to go over all the  scope and manufacturing requirements,

      Well facilitated seasons can increase trust and build relationships among project team members and stakeholders.

      The project is to build a new  blender for making smoothies. The project manager creates a focus group of individuals that prepare and drink their own smoothies; to ask their thoughts on what features and size of blender would most fit their needs.

      Having several focus groups with different groups on the same topic will determine if the project manager is getting good information.

      Its important to have a good moderator, so that no one individual on the focus group will dominate the conversation or unduly prejudice the group.

    • Focus Groups

      Focus groups bring together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result. A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion, designed to be more conversational than a one-on-one interview.

    • Interviews

      Interviews are a great tool for finding information from experienced stakeholders or SME’s. The information gleaned from these individuals may not have been found any other way.

       

      Interviews can be private and confidential information or ideas may be shared that otherwise would be hidden.

       

      Interviews can be formal or informal, they can have an agenda or can be spontaneous.

      A project manager wants to interview the project manager of the last similar project. He puts together a list of questions he needs to ask and decides to record the conversation so that he can commit the interview to writing at a later time.

      Interviews are held throughout the project. As the project proceeds it is valuable to interview the major contributing stakeholders to understand their viewpoints of the progress. This may pint out new of different requirements going forward.

    • Group Creativity Techniques

      Group Creativity Techniques are ways that the project team or stakeholders can interact, they include the following items:

      • Brainstorming – A technique to generate ideas and foster discussion.
      • Nominal group technique – This is the same a brainstorming but adds the features of voting and ranking the ideas, for further discussion
      • Idea/mind mapping – a technique in which ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions are consolidated into a singe map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding, and generate new ideas
      • Affinity diagram – A technique that allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
      • Multicriteria decision analysis – A technique that utilized a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such a risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas,

      The project manager decided to consult his team concerning the start of the project and the level of interaction with the stakeholders. He calls a meeting to hold a brainstorming session to determine the requirements at the start of the project execution.

      These techniques are used throughout the project. As we define the scope, schedule and budget more finitely we will update using the updates outputs.

      if it is discovered that a change is required than a change request will be completed and sent to “Perform Integrated Change Control”

    • Questionaires and Surveys

      Questionnaires and surveys and questions that will help in understanding the way forward. These questions are written in a format to give to the small sample group of a population to determine their requirements or thoughts concerning something important to the project.

       

      This technique is especially useful when the sample group is dispersed, or do not speak the same language.

       

      If the survey to to a population and not a sample it can be done in a “Group creativity technique”. If the population is dispersed than a survey would be appropriate.

      The project manager needs to know the proper color for a new product to be sold to homeowners to help the homeowner know how far to pull his car into confined garages. A survey is taken in areas that have small garages. and the homeowners respond to a set of questions about the new product.

      This is the best method to find requirements from a large and dispersed customer population.

    • Observations

      Also Called Job Shadowing

       

      Observation provides a direct way of viewing individuals  in their environment and how they perform their jobs, or tasks and carryout processes. It is particularly helpful for detailed processes when the people that use the product have difficulty describing or are reluctant to articulate their requirements,

       

      The project manager goes to the shop floor to watch the team building the deliverable. He is trying to understand the slow progress and the poor metrics on the schedule.

      Observation is a great way to get first hand experience, quickly and honestly from the project team. There is no bias in observation.

    • Prototypes

      Creating a working model of the deliverable can provide great feedback from the sponsor or customer. Using iterative feedback versions of the deliverable, will allow the customer to create and commit to a deliverable that will meet his expectations,

       

      Once a prototype has been accepted the project manager can have the customer sign agreements that will provide assurance to the sponsor and project manager.

      The deliverable is a technical product with many features. It can be built of wood and hard wired to create a prototype. The project manager decides to spend the money and time on the prototype as the tooling and engineering required to build the deliverable are considerable. He wants to verify that the features are working as the customer wants.

      Prototypes can be expensive. The analysis of cost effectiveness needs to be considered if the decision is made to create a prototype.

    • Context Diagrams

      Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system, and how people and other systems interact with it. Context diagrams show inputs to the business system, providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and receiving the output.

       

      Context diagrams show the effects of the scope on the surrounding programs and people.

      The project manager would create a context diagram for discussions with other project managers or program managers who will be implementing the deliverable into their system.

      This diagram must be done by a SME as it is necessary to understand the whole system and the flow of all the documentation and the inputs and outputs of all surrounding programs.

       

    • Document Analysis

      Document analysis is taking existing documentation from the current project or past projects and identifying requirements from the information. Types of documents that could be examined possibly include, but are not limited to the following:

      • Business plans
      • Marketing literature
      • Agreements
      • Requests for proposal
      • Current process flow charts
      • Logical data models,
      • Business rules
      • Repositories
      • Any business documentation

      The project manager looks at the lessons learned and the prior risk register from a previous successful project to see if he can find any requirements that his project would need.

      Examining the documents of prior projects is a good past time to prepare the project manager for future project.

       

      Most performing organizations do very similar projects; And many of the documents can have a template for their beginning.

    • Requirements Documentation

      Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous, traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder, and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments. The following can be included in the requirements documentation:

      • Business requirements
      • Stakeholder requirements
      • Solution requirements
      • Project requirements
      • Engineering requirements
      • Security Requirements

      There could be 50 other categories!!!

       

      The PM should go into sufficient detail so that all the stakeholders reading this document have a clear understanding of the requirements.

       

      The PM must respect the needs of the stakeholders. The Requirements documentation should be written to the level of the least knowledgeable of the team or stakeholders.

      In Quality the requirements documentation is call “Voice of the Customer” or “VOC”. VOC is used primarily to uncover the quality or feature requirements of the end user and customer.

    • Requirements Traceability Matrix

      The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverable that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

      Tracing includes, but is not limited to , tracing requirements for the the following:

      • Business needs, opportunities, goals, and objectives
      • Project objectives
      • Project scope/WBS deliverables
      • Product design
      • Product development
      • Test strategy and test scenarios
      • High-level requirements to more detailed requirements

       

      The PM should create the requirements traceability matrix at the same time he creates the requirements documentation.

       

      The requirements traceability matrix is an input to only 2 processes, Validate scope and Control scope.

    *The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.

  • 4 Create WBS
    • Scope Baseline

      SCOPE BASELINE

      Scope Baseline is a combination of three Items

      • Project Scope Statement
      • WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
      • WBS Dictionary

       

      Project Scope Statement – The Project Scope Statement includes a detailed description of the scope of the project. This written articulation of the work that needs to be done to complete the deliverable and the project includes many items; Major Deliverables with metrics of success, assumptions and constraints, and any detailed attachments required to understand the project scope statement

       

      WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) – The WBS is the decomposition of the work required to be completed to build the deliverable. It is created in a hierarchical order; each level of decomposition goes into greater detail. At the lowest level of decomposition, scope, time and cost can be estimated, and during execution can be compared to actual performance. Control accounts are at the top of the WBS next are control accounts, and finally we have the work package that is the lowest level in the WBS. The WBS is a high level chart of assembles and subassemblies with no detail descriptions.

       

      WBS Dictionary – The WBS Dictionary is the Detail that was left out of the WBS. It is the activity, scheduling and costing data for every work package. The detail in this document is only limited by your imagination. Anything that is relevant and or helpful to the project team, or other stakeholders is included. Some items that can be or should be included are:

      • Code of account identifier (for Production or Accounting)
      • Description of work (Statement of Work: subassembly project statement of work)
      • Assumptions and constraints
      • Responsible organization (Could be team member or stakeholder)
      • Schedule milestones
      • Associated schedule activities
      • Resources required
      • Cost estimates
      • Quality requirements
      • Acceptance requirements
      • Technical references (Detail of specific technical requirements)
      • Agreement information (contract, memo, sponsor or customer requirements)
    • Project Documents Updates

    *The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

   
3 Time

*Project time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

     
4 Cost

*Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

     
5 Quality

*Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

 
1 Plan Quality Management

*The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.

2 Perform Quality Assurance

*The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.

3 Control Quality

*The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.

 
6 Human Resources

*Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.

     
7 Communications

*Project Communications Management. Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.

 
1 Plan Communications Management

*The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available organizational assets.

2 Manage Communications

*The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the Communication Management Plan.

3 Control Communications

*The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.

 
8 Risk

*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.

   
6 Control Risks

*The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.

 
9 Procurement

*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.

 
1 Plan Procurement Management
  • Procurement Management Plan
  • Procurement Statement of Work

    Procurement Statement of Work

    The Procurement statement of work is the detail from the WBS Dictionary that must be conveyed to the vendor. The vendor will use this information to determine if he can complete the purchase order and deliverable successfully.

     

    The procurement statement of work can be taken directly from the WBS Dictionary, as the WBS Dictionary has all the detail for the deliverable subassembly. From this area we can supply the vendor with the scope, schedule, and costing information.

     

    The procurement statement of work contains all the detail required by the vendor to determine if he has the resources required, to complete the project successful.

     

    The procrement statement of work detail can be compared to the detail in the WBS Dictionary created in the “Create WBS” process.

  • Procurement Documents
  • Source Selection Criteria
  • Make-or-Buy Decisions
  • Change Requests
  • Project Documents Updates

*The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.

2 Conduct Procurements
  • Expert Judgement
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Bidder Conference
  • Proposal Evaluation Techniques
  • Independent Estimates
  • Advertising

    Looking for other vendors to supply the required components or sub-assemblies to the project team for installation into the deliverable

    The suppliers delivered from the Plan Procurements were deamed not reliable, and could not be trusted to comply with the procurement statement of work. Therefore we began searching for other vendors.

    Most businesses have standard and approved vendors. Advertising would be used for unusual purchases or uniqe purchases. Also if an approved vendor needs to be price checked, it is appropriate to get another quotation.

  • Procurement Negotiations

*The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.

3 Control Procurements

*The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.

10 Stakeholder

*Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.

1 Identify Stakeholders

The key benefit to the PM is that it allows the project manager to identify the appropriate focus for each stakeholder or group of stakeholders.

 

This process is the first pass at analyzing the stakeholders. The second pass is in plan stakeholder management,

 

In identify stakeholders we determine those stakeholders who can assist the project and those that can not assist us or hold us back. Are they supporters or resisters? This must be completed right after the project charter is signed.

 

A Template of a stakeholder register is a good idea to assist in its creation,

Having a meeting with the sponsor and customer would go a long way in identifying the stakeholders.

Not know your stakeholders immediately can be a big mistake. If the right stakeholder is not on board it will slow the project.

  • Project Charter

    The Project Charter is the main input to Identify Stakeholders as it should have the sponsor, Project Manager and Customer identified. Also sometimes the Project Charter will also have some of the project team members preassigned. By having this list of stakeholders known, the Project Manager can then interview these stakeholders and identify all other key stakeholders.

    The PM utilizes the project charter to find the most important stakeholders. The project sponsor, the customer, the users, and any other stakeholder mentioned in the project charter.

    The project charter is sometimes looked at as a mini project management plan. Each of the inputs of the project charter is required as it brings in particular information to the receiving process.

  • Procurement Documents

    If the project is the result of procurement activities then the procurement documents will have all the stakeholders that are a party to the contracts. They will also have all the detail of the procurement statement of work and name the engineers, sales personnel, and other SME’s in regard to the purchase contract.

     

    If the project is not the result of procurement activities but does have outside processing then these individuals or groups or organizations need to be part of the stakeholder register.

    The PM has a meeting with the procurement department of the performing organization to solicit any open procurement documents that the organization has completed. Also he want to get a listing of all activities in process with outside companies to follow the progress and identify possible more stakeholders.

    The process of identifying stakeholders is in the initiate process group but it overlaps with the planning process group.

  • Enterprise Environmental Factors

    Each process uses different EEF’s in this process some of the EEF’s that could be used are:

    • Organizational culture and structure
    • Governmental or industry standards
    • Regulations
    • Global, regional or local trends, and practices or habits

    The PM is working in China to build a sanitation facility. He must take the Chinese culture and Chinese governmental regulations into consideration.

     

    The working habits and local work rules must be understood clearly before assigning or delegating project work.

    This is the one input that changes for each location or different group or organization.

  • Organizational Process Assets

    Some of the organizational processes that can influence the identify stakeholders are as follows.

    • Templates – Stakeholder register
    • Lessons Learned – Previous project information
    • Stakeholder registers from previous projects.

    The PM obtains the stakeholder register from a previous project and reviews it in respect to the new project.

    His is most interested in the titles of the stakeholders as the actual people have changed but the positions have not.

    This input gives the PM flexibility to look at all the performing organizations written history in regard to his requirements for this project.

  • Expert Judgement

    To ensure that all the stakeholders are identified expertise should be sought from groups or individuals with knowledge in areas such as:

    • Senior management
    • Performing organization knowledge
    • Identified key stakeholders
    • Other project managers in the same organization
    • SME’s (Subject Matter Experts)
    • Consultants
    • Professional or technical groups

    The PM calls a meeting to list and analyze the stakeholder for the current project. He calls in the prior project manager and the sponsor to act as SME’s

    The project manager should, at the end of the project, become a SME on the stakeholders. His close association with the stakeholders should give him all the experience to be an SME.

  • Meetings

    Meetings are held in Identify stakeholders; to list, analyze and determine the interests of stakeholders. Involvement of the project team and SME’s will enhance the success of the meetings and the Identify Stakeholder process.

    The PM will call meetings as required, at first to list and evaluate the stakeholders; but continuous meetings could be held to add new stakeholders or do analysis and or to update the list with changes to stakeholders.

    There are 17 inputs of meetings. It becomes important for the PM to become a master of creating and conducting meetings.

  • Stakeholder Analysis

    Stakeholder analysis identifies the interests , expectations, and influence of the stakeholders as they relate to the project.

    Relationships of the stakeholders to the performing organization, project team members and each other need to be examined and understood.

    The ability of each stakeholder in relation to their ability to influence the project must also be examined; so that the stakeholders can be grouped for distribution of sensitive information and or reports.

    Some analysis that is useful:

    • Power/Interest Grid
    • Power/Influence grid
    • Influence/Impact Grid
    • Salience Model – Describing stakeholders on their power, urgency, and Legitimacy

    The PM brings together the project team to discuss stakeholders. He uses expert judgement, to discuss each stakeholder by using tools to facilitate the recording of each stakeholder and categorizing each stakeholder for influence over the project.

    Will this stakeholder be a supporter or resister.

    The Stakeholder analysis will change depending on the industry and the type of deliverable that is the object of the project.

    • Internal vs External customer
    • IT vs Manufacturing
    • Product vs Service

     

  • Stakeholder Register

    The stakeholder register contains all the details of all the identified stakeholders.

    This is an important document, It is updated throughout the project, if more stakeholders are identified the same analytics need to be completed to know where they stand.

    Some of the items that are placed on the stakeholder register are:

    • Identification Information
    • Assessment information
    • Stakeholder classification

    The project manager will create the stakeholder register as soon as the project charter is signed. He will invite those stakeholders or SME’s to participate that can make a contribution.

    The PM must be diplomatic when creating a stakeholder register as there may be sensitive information that is required for the project concerning the stakeholder. Therefore there may be a private stakeholder attachment that may be created and only available to small select group.

*The process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project; and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success.

2 Plan Stakeholder Management

*The process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success.

3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement

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  • Communication Methods

    The methods of communication identified for each stakeholder in the communications management plan are utilized during stakeholder engagement management. Based on the stakeholders communication requirements, The project manager decides how, when, and which of these communication methods are to be used to communicate with each stakeholder.

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  • Interpersonal Skills

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  • Management Skills

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*The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.

4 Control Stakeholder Engagement

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*The process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.

 
*Products, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria.
*Obtaining human and material resources necessary to perform project activities. Acquisition implies a cost of resources, and is not necessarily financial.
*The types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
*Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
*The projected cost of the schedule activity that includes the cost for all resources required to perform and complete the activity, including all cost types and cost components.
*The quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity.
*A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
*A set of tools used to define the quality requirements and to plan effective quality management activities. They include, but are not limited to: brainstorming, force field analysis, nominal group techniques and quality management and control tools.
*The process of calling public attention to a project or effort.
*Any document or communication that defines the initial intentions of a project. This can take the form of a contract, memorandum of understanding (MOU), letters of agreement, verbal agreements, email, etc.
*A technique used to evaluate identified options In order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.
*A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
*A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
*Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
*A review of the change requests to verify that these were implemented as approved.
*A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved
*A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.
*Supporting documentation outlining the details used in establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges, and confidence levels.
*Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
*The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
*A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
*A documented economic feasibility study used to establish validity of the benefits of the selected component, lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities.
*Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.
*A comprehensive list of changes made during the project. This typically includes dates of the change and impacts in terms of time, cost, and risk.
*A formal proposal to modify any document, deliverable, or baseline.
*A technique for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness.
*The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
*Project contracts or other procurement agreements that have been formally acknowledged by the proper authorizing agent as being finalized and signed off.
*An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.
*A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
*A description, analogy or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
*Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
*A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.
*An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
*Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflict situation to achieve a resolution.
*A visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it.
*Responses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs.
*The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
*Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project's WBS or for a given cost control account.
*The approved version of the time-phased project budge, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
Forecasts or the costs calculated either by an EAC calculation or a rolled up value from a integrated cost accounting system.
*A component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled.
*A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
*A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
*A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
*A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
*Techniques used to collect, organize, and present data and information.
*A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
*Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
*A technique used to identify the type of dependency that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessor and successor activities.
*A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.
*Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding.
*An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements.
*The process of gathering a corpus of information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.
*A methodology that combines scope, schedule, cost, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress.
*Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio.
As a result of develop project team and manage project team there may be a need to update organization performance appraisals and personel skill requirements.
*Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.
*An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.
Facilitation Techniques are brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving and any other communication or colaboration technique that assists the development of the Project Charter or Project Management Plan.
Transition or delivery of the deliverable that was the object of the project. It must be delivered as required by the project management plan.
*An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
*An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the project's past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
*The process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures.
*Expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
*Techniques that are used to generate ideas within a group of stakeholders.
*Techniques to assess multiple alternatives that will be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements.
Historical Relationships are used to find values to be used in parametric estimating, or analogous estimates.
*A component of the project management plan that describes how the roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staff management will be addressed and structured.
A process of preparing one's own estimate or obtaining one from a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule, or other items.
*Repeatable processes used to assemble and organize data across a spectrum of sources.
*Facilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format.
*Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.
*A process to observe performance of contracted work or a promised product against agreed-upon requirements.
*Ability to establish and maintain relationships with other people.
*A formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
*A project document used to document and monitor elements under discussion or in dispute between project stakeholders.
*Lead is the amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity. Lag is the amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.
*The process of gathering and organizing data about product requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase or internal manufacture of the product.
*Decisions made regarding the external purchase or internal manufacture of a product.
*The ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals.
*The process of gathering information at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities.
Meetings are held to discuss and exchange information. Using the tools of Brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique and the Delphi Technique, teams can evaluate and cusomize their project reqirements to manage each project situation or requirement.
*A list identifying all project milestones and normally indicates whether the milestone is mandatory or optional.
Modeling Techniques, are "What-if Scenario Analysis" and "Simulation" which usually means the Monte Carlo Analysis. This is looking at different durations from different activities and determining the different schedule lengths.
*This technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.
*The process and activities to resolving disputes through consultations between involved parties.
*Establishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations.
*A technique that provides a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment performing their jobs or tasks and carrying out processes.
The best way to understand the attitudes and involvement of the team members is to be close to them. By observing and conversing the manager can know how involved each team member is in the project and in the goals of the delivery of the deliverable.
Organizational charts and postion descriptions, can be in hierarchical, matrix or written form.
*Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.
Updating any of the Organizational Process Assets.
Organizational Theory is using the tools provided by experts in team development. How do people, groups, and teams react, and work together given certain situations; and how to promote appropriate behavier.
“Outputs from other processes” are all the Plans, Baselines, that are produced during the Project.
*An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
*The system used to provide and track supplier's invoices and payments for services and products.
*The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.
*A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.
Assessing project team members strengths and weaknesses. Using interviews, attitudinal surveys, ability tests, and industry specific knowledge tests to determine competency in providing the service required by the project team member.
Project team members are sometimes assigned in advance of the project charter or in the project charter, either by the sponsor, customer request, or the assigned project manager. These team members are considered pre-assigned.
*A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
*A grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
*A process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.
*A subsidiary plan of the project management plan. It details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities that enhance their value.
*The review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness. Mainly done for lessons learned.
*The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer's Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal, and seller's responses.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization.
All terms and conditions are discussed prior to signing a contract or purchase order. Scope, schedule, and cost are the primary contract points to be discussed. Payment terms, and all other pertinant conditions to the purchase are also discussed in colaborative negotiations.
*A structured review of the seller's progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract.
*Describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results.
*For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, charcteristics, and other relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured.
*A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities.
*A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Communications between stakeholders. These can be in any form, written, verbal, formal or informal.
Project documents can influence and improve the quality assurance process. These documents are outputs from scope, schedule, and cost processes, as well as other planning areas.
Any and all project documents can be updated as an output of this process.
*Forecast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.
*An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.
*The document that describes how the project will be executed monitored, and controlled, and closed
When work in the current Process results in better understanding or definitization of part of the Project Mangement Plan, And it needs to be communicated to the Project team, an update the the Project Management Plan would be in order. Any or all the Plans or Baselines can be updated with this output.
Software developed to help plan and organize project and activity resources.
Project Team members have performance reviews, to receive feedback and to receive guidence as to their roles and resposibilities, authority level. They also can colaborate on unresolved issues and receive training, and discuss goals.
*An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.
*A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.
*The description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
*Project Team member staff assignments. This output is the product of "Aquire Project Team". A listing or directory should be maintained for large project teams.
*A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.
*The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.
*A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
Using the Industry publications to find production rates or units of cost to assist in determining the time involved or resources required to complete a task or several tasks.
*A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.
*A structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.
*The documented results of control quality activities.
*They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how an organization's quality policies will be implemented.
*A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
*Commonly used techniques for both event-oriented and project-oriented analysis approaches.
*Written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.
Recognition of rewarding project team members and team performance is a part of team development. Planning and executing recognition and rewards will improve team confidence and performance.
*A specific set of processes, related control functions, and tools that are consolidated and combined to record and retain information about the project.
*A description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
*A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
*An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
*A hierarchical representation of resources by category and type.
*A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available.
*A technique that is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities that adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability.
*Examination and documentation of the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.
*Organization by sources of risk (e.g., using the RBS), the area of the project affected (e.g., using the WBS), or other useful category (e.g., project phase) to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.
*Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.
*A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.
Assessing the likelihood that a risk or opportunity could happen. Analysis is made between the event, and the probability, and impact metrics.
*Risk reassessment is the identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated.
*A document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded.
*Review and determination of the timing of actions that may need to occur sooner than other risk items.
*An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
*The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
*Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.
*The collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule.
*Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is calculated.
*A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.
*The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities. See also, backward pass, critical path method, critical chain method, and resource leveling.
*A tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method.
*The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified.
*The sellers which have been selected to provide a contracted set of services or products.
*Formal responses from sellers to a request for proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization that, if accepted, would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement.
*A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for planning, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization.
*A set of attributes desired by the buyer which a seller is required to meet or exceed to be selected for a contract.
*A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.
*The stakeholder management plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan that defines the processes, procedures, tools, and techniques to effectively engage stakeholders in project decisions and execution based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact.
*A project document including the identificaiton, assessment, and classification of project stakeholders.
*Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.
Stratagies for dealing with negative risks or threats that can threaten the project.
The strategies for taking advantage of all positive risks or opportunities.
*Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option.
Assessments of the project team performance. Are they performing at an acceptable level. Are they doing the things required by the project in a unified and team mannor.
Activities that help the project team to work well together. If team members work well together they will collaborate better and make better decisions.
Compares the actual technical performance against the plan technical performace as measured by the baselines. Also actual quality vs the scope baseline. Metrics are required to acertain the level of performance.
*A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
*A measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.
Training is providing education or training that will improve performance of a team member or the project team as a whole.
Validated Changes are Approved Changes that have been implemented in "Direct and Manage Project Work". In control quality we audit the work of the change to verify it has been completed as approved through the "Perform Integrated Change Control" process.
*A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
*An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from the baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods' data and projecting how much that parameter's variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.
Bids received back from potential sellers can be used to estimate the cost of portions of the deliverable. Bid analysis can assist to determine if a subassembly or component should be built in house, or placed on a purchase order to a seller.
*Completed project deliverables that have been checked and confirmed for correctness through the Control Quality process.
Teams which are not colocated. These teams are often communicate over long distance. Emails, video conferencing, and telephone communication are used to band the team together. Team members can be in different countries, states, or time zones.
*The raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work.
*The performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas.
*The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.
If the project requires external procurement of resources, procurement documentation should be reviewed as procuring goods and services from outside the organization may increase or decrease overall project risk and may introduce additional individual project risks.
Root cause analysis is typically used to identify a problem, discover the underlying causes that lead to it, and develop preventative action. it can be used to identify threats by starting with a problem statement and exploring which threats might result in that problem occurring. The same technique can be used to find opportunities by starting with a benefit statement and exploring which opportunities might result in that benefit being realized.
Every project and its project management plan are conceived and developed based on a set of assumptions and within a series of constraints. These are often captured in the scope baseline and project estimates. Assumption and constraint analysis explores the validity of assumptions and constraints to determine which pose a risk to the project, Threats may be identified from the inaccuracy, instability, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions. Constraints may give rise to opportunities through removing or relaxing a limiting factor that affects the execution of a project or process.
This technique examines the project from each of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) perspectives. For risk identification, it is used to increase the breadth of identified risks by including internally generated risks. The technique starts with the identification of strengths and weaknesses of the organization, focusing on either the project, organization, or the business area in general. SWOT analysis then identifies any opportunities for the project that may arise from strengths, and any threats resulting from weaknesses. The analysis also examines the degree to which organizational strengths may offset threats and determines if weaknesses might hinder opportunities.
*The projected cost of the schedule activity that includes the cost for all resources required to perform and complete the activity, including all cost types and cost components.
*The types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
If the project requires external procurement of resources, procurement documentation should be reviewed as procuring goods and services from outside the organization may increase or decrease overall project risk and may introduce additional individual project risks.

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