PMP

 

Processes Name

INPUTS

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

OUTPUTS


Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
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Description

Description








Process Group
Knowledge Area
1 Initiating

*Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.

2 Planning

*Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action rquired to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.

3 Executing

*Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.

4 Monitoring & Controlling

*Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.

5 Closing

*Those processes performed to finalize all activiities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.

1 Integration

*Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.

1 Develop Project Charter

The result or output of this process is the Project Charter.  Once issued by the project initiator or sponsor, it brings the project to life and grants the PM authority and needed resources to kick off the project.

 

Components include:

  • The purpose or justification for the project.
  • Summaries of the budget and milestone schedule.
  • High-level conditions or requirements.
  • High-level service/product characteristics and project description.
  • Assigned PM, responsibility, and authority.

Note: needed inputs to create the Project Charter include Project Statement of Work (SOW), Business Case, and Agreements, other sources may also include Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) and Organizational Process Assets (OPAs). (MAD 10/26/2015)

You are a PM (Project Manager) in a large company which employs a PMO (Project Management Office). You are asked to prepare a document that will describe and communicate the scope and potential benefits of a certain project. You as the PM will utilize a template project charter document to prepare a project charter for the sponsor and stakeholders to review and approve to start the project.

 

Once approved the project charter will not be updated, it will be utilized as an input document for other processes to start and develop the Project Management Plan, other subsidiary project plans and other important project documents.

  1. The Develop Project Charter, once documented, is in essence the birth certificate of the project and constitutes the first document in the lifespan of the project. (MAD 10/24/2015)
  2. The few processes that generate only one output: Develop Project Charter, Develop Project Management Plan, Plan Schedule management, Plan Cost management, Plan Human Resource Management, Plan Risk management, Identify Risk, Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis, Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, and Identify Stakeholders. (MAD 10/26/2015)
  • Business documents - Business case

    The approved business case, or similar, is the business document most commonly used to create the project charter. The business case describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether the expected outcomes of the project justify the required investment. It is commonly used for decision making by managers or executive above the project level. Typically, the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case to justify and establish boundaries for the project.

    The business case can be from any of the following reasons:

     

    • Market demand
    • Organizational need
    • Customer request
    • Technological advance
    • Legal requirement
    • Ecological impacts
    • Social need

    Business case can be developed prior to the project being developed. It should be articulated in enough detail for the sponsor to clearly understand.

     

    In the case of multi phase projects, the business case is reviewed at every phase review to ensure that the project is on track to deliver the business benefits. Throughout the project life cycle, periodic review of the business case by the sponsoring organization also helps to confirm that the project is still aligned with the business case. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that the project effectively and efficiently meets the goals of the organization and those requirement of a broad set of stakeholders, as defined in the business case

  • Business documents - Benefits management plan

    The project benefits management plan includes information on the strategic alignment of the project with the business objectives of the organization, and the target benefits to be obtained. It is important to know the benefits, but it is also critical to know how to measure the benefits to be able to demonstrate to management that goals have been reached,

    A return on investment (ROI) of 16 % is required on all projects. A formula of calculation is developed to be used with all project to see if they are successful.

    The Business Case and the Project benefits management plan are developed prior to the project. But they should be reviewed by the project manager periodically.

     

    The project charter incorporates the appropriate information for the project from the business documents. The project manger does not update or modify the business documents since they are not project documents; however, the project manager may make recommendations.

  • Agreements

    Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

     

    Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

    You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

     

    Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

    There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurements process.

     

    The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

  • Enterprise environmental factors

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

     

    Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

     

    Organization structure

    Organization temperament

    Organization culture

    Government Regulations

    Industry Standards

    Market ever-changing conditions

    Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

    Industry Quality standards

    Organization Quality standards and controls

    Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

    You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

     

    The EEF’s that should be considered are:

    Columbian internal EEF’s

    • Environmental laws
    • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
    • Culture of the Columbian labor
    • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
    • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

    Culture of existing project staff

    Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

    As you can tell this could go on and on.

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

  • Organizational process assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

     

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

     

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    47 out of 49 processes have OPA’s as an input to the process. Only 2 processes do not have OPA’s as an input:

     

    Validate Scope

    Monitor risks

  • Expert judgement

    Expert Judgement is a tool and technique that is used in 35 different processes. The expert judgment that is required for use in each process is different and depends on the skills required to produce the output of the process under examination.

     

    Although the term “expert judgement”, is used 35 times, the definition of what expert judgment is required will be different for each of the processes involved.

    The expert judgement required may be delivered by a project team member, or be someone who is contracted to assist in the project. SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) may be on retainer in some industries, PMO’s (Project Management Office) may have SME’s available from departments within the performing organization.

    Expert Judgement is seeking out those that are considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) in the areas under consideration for the Project Charter. The range of examples would be huge and touch every aspect of the Charter

  • Data gathering - Brainstorming

    Brainstorming: This technique is used to identify a list of ideas in a short period of time. It is conducted in a group environment and is led by a facilitatorBrainstorming  has two parts 1 Idea generation and 2 analysis. Brainstorming can be used to gather data and solution or ideas from stakeholders, subject matter experts, and team members when developing the project charter.

    Any area of confusion or uncertainty about the project should be investigated and articulated. Bringing together subject matter experts and knowledgeable stakeholders to discuss and brainstorm the uncertainty may add more definition to the uncertain topic.

    There are several types of Brainstorming:

    • Brainstorming
    • Nominal group technique (voting and ranking)
    • Delphi technique (anonymous data collection)
  • Data gathering - Interviews

    Direct one-on-one interviews are used to obtain information on the project requirements, assumptions and constraints and approval criteria.

    Definitely a favorite of most project managers.

  • Data gathering - Focus groups

    Focus groups bring together stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about the perceived project risk, success criteria, and other topics in a more conversational way than a one-on-one interview.

    Focus groups with prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts definitize the expectations for a proposed product service or result. A moderator guides an interactive discussion with the group.

  • Interpersonal and team skills - Facilitation

    A facilitator ensures that there is effective participation, that participants achieve a mutual understanding, that all contributions are considered , that conclusions or results have full buy-in according to the decision process established for the project, and that the actions and agreements achieved are appropriately dealt with afterwards.

    The project manager needs definition on the scope of the project,  The PM calls a meeting to call attention to and define the project scope in more detailed terms,

    There are 9 processes that use Facilitation.

  • Interpersonal and team skills - Conflict management

    Keeping the team on scope, schedule, and budget is the goal of any project manager. Conflicts in these areas and other area are not productive to the project. Therefore conflict management can be used to help bring stakeholders into alignment on the objectives, success criteria.

  • Interpersonal and team skills - Meeting management

    Having effective meetings is critical to good time management. Preparing the meeting place, preparing the participants, having an agenda, and focusing on the agenda during the meeting, and following up on the assignments of the meeting satisfy the “meeting management” requirement.

  • Meetings

    For this process, meetings are held with key stakeholders to identify the project objectives, success criteria, key deliverables, high-level requirements, summary milestones, and other summary information.

  • Project charter

    A project charter serves as a high level template for your project. It is used in order to gain approval to begin work, and to requisition the money and assets required to complete the project. It is considered a the first step, to start the project. Without a completed and authorized Project Charter a project does not exist.

    The project charter document, is the first document produced by a project. Once it has been approved then the project planning may begin.

    The project charter should include the following items:

    • High level scope.
    • High level schedule
    • High level budget

    And all the details that are available concerning these items at the time.

    Also all the Business requirements for the performing organization to be successful.

    There are numerous free examples of a project charter on the internet. I will not reproduce one here,

     

    It is important to note that many companies have a template they like to use for project charters and these are unique for their purposes, industry or products.

    The Project Charter is a unique document. It should not be updated once it is completed and authorized. It is used as an input to eight (13) other processes to provide high level input to, Develop Project Management Plan, scope, time, cost, risk and stakeholder analysis.

  • Project documents - Assumption log

    Assumptions from developing the scope, schedule and budget as well as other knowledge areas, are listed and articulated in the assumption log. It is progressively elaborated throughout the project.

     

    The assumption log is used to record all assumptions and all constraints throughout the project life cycle.

*The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

2 Develop Project Management Plan

The “Project Management Plan” contains all the plans and baselines literally. This feature of the project management plan means that all the requirements for execution, monitoring and controlling and closing are spelled out in detail in this Record or File. The project management plan is not a project document by definition, Project Records and anything that is not called a plan or baseline.

The Project Management Plan is Progressively Elaborated or iteratively developed during the project. The term to use is “Progressively Elaborated”. There are nineteen (19) outputs of “Project Management Plan Updates”, the use of this output is to update any of the plans or baselines with more definitive information. Project Management Plan Updates is not used for project Changes. All changes use the output, “Change Request”. Change Requests are then processed through “Perform Integrated Change Control” process.

The Project Management Plan is a voluminous file.  Examples on the internet are available and the size and scope is determined by the size and scope of the project itself.

There are many companies that continue to develop the project charter and utilize the project charter as the project management plan. For smaller projects this may serve the needs of the organization. Any project of size and complexity would be served better by following all the processes in the PMP process chart.

  • Project charter

    The Project Charter is an input to the Develop Project Management Plan because it gives the basis of the project. The Project Charter has articulated a high level Scope, Schedule, and a Budget. Also depending on the developer of the charter, it could contain, risks, quality requirements, preassigned project team members and many other insights and facts concerning the project. These insights and facts in the Project Charter will provide the outline of the Project management Plan, with Metrics required to be met, and high level, Scope, Schedule and Budget requirements.

    You are a new hire Project Manager at a tool and die company. You have been assigned as the project for a new project and have just been handed the signed project charter for your project. This document gives much of the detail you require to get started with the Project Management Plan and many of the subsidiary management plans.

    There is no better information written about the new project then in the Project Charter.

    Project Charters should be comprehensive but some companies have templates that are used. Their projects are very similar and they produce very similar deliverables.

    Every organization has unique OPA’s and EEF’s.  When looking at the Project Management Life Cycle, it is important to understand the true requirements of the Porject Charter.

  • Outputs from other processes

    “Outputs from other processes” are all the Plans, Baselines,  that are produced during the Project.

     

    The Project Management plan includes two categories of documents:

    • All Plans. Any document that is a plan. Not only the other 9 knowledge area plans, but any document that is titled a plan.
    • All Baselines. There are three:
      1. Scope Baseline
      2. Schedule Baseline
      3. Cost Baseline

     

     

    All other documents in the project other than Plans and Baselines are simply referred to as project documents.

     

    There is a question that pops up on the exam at times:

     

    Which of the following items is not a project document:

    1. Schedule Baseline
    2. Risk Register
    3. Constraints Log
    4. Activity List

     

    Answer A The Schedule Baseline is part of the Project Management Plan

    A discussion is held between the customer and the project manager. In this discussion the project manager becomes aware of the importance of a feature that should be emphasized more dramatically in the deliverable.

     

    Due to this conversation the project manager updates the project scope statement and informs the project team. This update did not change the project management plan, it just defines the scope to a better level of understanding.

    This input is unique. It is the only input that is created from all outputs from other processes.

  • Enterprise environmental factors

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

    Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

    Organization structure

    Organization temperament

    Organization culture

    Government Regulations

    Industry Standards

    Market ever-changing conditions

    Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

    Industry Quality standards

    Organization Quality standards and controls

    Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

    You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

    The EEF’s that should be considered are:

    Columbian internal EEF’s

    • Environmental laws
    • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
    • Culture of the Columbian labor
    • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
    • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

    Culture of existing project staff

    Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

    As you can tell this could go on and on.

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 27 separate processes.

  • Organizational process assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    38 out of 47 processes have OPA’s as an input to the process. Only 9 processes do not have OPA’s as an input.

  • Expert judgement

    Expert Judgement is a tool and technique that is used in 35 different processes. The expert judgment that is required for use in each process is different and depends on the skills required to produce the output of the process under examination. Although the term “expert judgement”, is used 28 times, the definition of what expert judgment is needed will be different for each of the processes involved.

    The expert judgement required may be delivered by a project team member, or be someone who is contracted to assist in the project. SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) may be on retainer in some industries, PMO’s (Project Management Office) may have SME’s available from departments within the performing organization.

    Expert Judgement is seeking out those that are considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) in the areas under consideration for the Project Management Plan. The range of examples would be huge and touch every aspect of the Project Management Plan.

  • Data gathering - Brainstorming

    Brainstorming is frequently used when developing the project management plan to gather ideas and solutions about the project approach. Attendees include the project team members although other subject matter experts (SME’s) or stakeholders may also participate.

    The project manager is new to this project as the previous project manager left for a new job. A question has arose as to the risk level of continuing this project as the budget has been exceeded and we are only 1/3 complete. The team is brought together to discuss the merits of moving forward and the risk tolerance of the stakeholders.

     

    It was decided to have a meeting with the sponsor and customer to discuss cancellation of the project.

    There are many different styles of brainstorming. The one that is used depends on the makeup of the team and the type of information being gathered.

     

     

  • Data gathering - Interviews

    Interviews are used to obtain specific information from stakeholders to develop the project management plan.

     

    The project manager interviews the sponsor and customer to verify he has the requirements reflected in his baselines and plans prior to roll-out can be a very good idea to crosscheck his, and his teams planning.

    Interviews are a good way to pick the brain of a specific stakeholder regarding any requirement.

  • Data gathering - Checklists

    A checklist is a list of items, actions, or points to be considered. It is often used as a reminder. All checklists are developed based on historical information and knowledge that has been accumulated from similar projects and form other sources of information. They are an effective way to capture lessons learned from similar completed projects, listing specific individual project requirements that have occurred previously and that may be relevant to this project, The organization may maintain a checklist based on its own completed project or may use generic checklists from  the industry. While a checklist may be quick and simple to use, it is impossible to build an exhaustive one, and care should be taken to ensure the checklist is not used to avoid the effort of going over a detail of the possibilities. The project team should also explore items that do not appear on the checklist. additionally, the checklist should be reviewed from time to time to update new information as well as remove or archive obsolete information,

    The project manager looks at the prior projects project management plan before the project kick-off meeting to ensure he has all the documents and plans and baselines are completed in enough detail to present to the team.

     

    The PM now creates a checklist for his future projects. This list will assist him in preparing for the kick-off meetings.

    Templates are created for many reasons. Checklists for Risk and Control quality are very high on the list. But checklists for the creation of all documents and plans can be very helpful.

  • Data gathering - Focus groups

    Focus groups bring together stakeholders to discuss the project management approach and the integration of the different components of the project management plan.

    The project manager, at his dissgression, may call together his project management team to go over the presentation of the kick-off meeting to review the presentation and completeness of the material to be presented in a focus group session

    Focus groups are not used as much as they should be. Bringing together SME’s and concerned stakeholders will educate the curious.

  • Interpersonal and team skills - Facilitation

    Facilitation ensures that there is effective participation, that participants achieve a mutual understanding, threat all contributions are considered, and that conclusions or results have full buy-in according to the decision process established for the project.

    The project manager must instill an attitude of good will between project stakeholders.

  • Interpersonal and team skills - Conflict management

    Conflict management may be necessary to bring diverse stakeholders into alignment on all aspects of the project management plan.

    The project manager has a large project team dispersed by distance and language. There is a particular problem with the language barrier between Brazil and Sweden. There were few interpreters to be found. The project manager decided to remove the requirements from the Brazil team and assign them to the Sweden team to enhance the performance of the project.

    Conflict management is a challenging endeavor. Good management skills are required to handle issues with stakeholders.

  • Interpersonal and team skills - Meeting management

    Meeting management is necessary to ensure that the numerous meetings that are necessary to develop, unify, and agree on the project management plan are well run.

  • Meetings

    For this process, meetings are used to discuss the project approach, determine how work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives, and establish the way the project will be monitored and controlled.

  • Project management plan

    The project management plan is the most important Plan in the project. This plan is composed of all the plans and baselines that the project produces. This plan is first base-lined, meaning it is of sufficient detail to start the execution of the project.

     

    As each plan or baseline is improved or made more explicit then the project management plan is improved and updated. This process is continued throughout the project,

     

    The Project Management Plan includes the following:

    Plans:

    • Scope Management plan
    • Requirements management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Cost management plan
    • Quality management plan
    • Resource management plan
    • Communications management plan
    • Risk management plan
    • Procurement management plan
    • Stakeholder management plan

    Baseline:

    • Scope baseline
    • Schedule baseline
    • Cost Baseline

    Additional Components:

    • Change management plan
    • Configuration management plan
    • Performance measurement baseline
    • Project life cycle
    • Development approach
    • Management reviews

     

    While the project management plan is one of the primary documents used to manage the project, other project documents are also used. These other documents are not part of the project management plan; however, they are necessary to manage the project effectively.

    The project manager cannot start the project till the project charter is signed and he has done enough planning with his team to baseline the project.

     

    The Kick Off meeting is held at the end of the planning phase or when the project is baselined. (When all three baselines are completed)  The project is now laid out to the project team. The project management plan will be updated and defined continuously till the deliverable is accepted and delivered to the customer.

    The Project Management plan is created in this process. It is an input to almost all other processes.

     

    When the Project Management Plan is an input, it also brings in with it all other plans and Baselines.

*The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.

  • 3 Direct & Manage Project Work

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of ALL project physical work. This process includes all the work of the processes of the Execute Process Group.

     

    The purpose of this process is to produce the deliverable as outlined in the Project Management Plan. One of the outputs of this process is indeed the “Deliverable“. All the work on the deliverable is done in this process, all other processes in the execute process group, support this process.

     

    A second very important output here is “Work Performance Data“. All the data collected throughout the execution is contained in this output. This output becomes the input to Nine (9) other processes. All the processes in Monitoring and Controlling except those in the Integration Knowledge area.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of the Project Management Plan.

     

    Execution means the work on the deliverable. All the physical work is done here. Planning and Monitoring and Controlling is done in other process groups.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the only process where the deliverable is produced. All the work is done in execution. All approved change requests are implemented and completed in this process.

    • Expert judgement

      Expert Judgement is used to determine how to execute the Project management plan. What skills are required and what personnel are needed to produce the deliverable? These are the questions posed to experts.

       

      The first expertise utilized is that of the project manager and the project team. If further expertise is required the project manager can solicit from the following:

      Consultants

      Stakeholders

      Sponsor or Customer

      Groups or Organizations with specific knowledge or skills

      The Project Manager realizes that the project team lacks the appropriate skills to measure to six sigma standards. He then puts in a change request for six sigma training for the team and puts in a requisition for a six sigma Black Belt.

      Expert Judgement is a tool or technique in 28 processes. The Project manager does not need to be an expert in all things to be the project manager. He should be a expert in Project Manager.

    • Project management information system (PMIS)

      The PMIS gives access to the following systems or documents:

      Scheduling Tool

      Work Authorization System

      Configuration Management System

      Data Collection and Distribution System

      A KPI (key Performance Indicator) reporting system may be attached to the PMIS system.

      A new company has been using a manual PMIS system but has decided to implement a data collection system that will generate KPI’s and have data bases that can hold the configuration management system and scheduling tool.

       

      Each performing organization should have a system that fits its needs and requirements.

      The same systems that are used in the PMIS are also used in the change control tools in the “Perform integrated change control” process.

    • Meetings

      Meetings are used to discuss requirements and assignments in the execution of the project management plan. Attendees will be all affected stakeholders, Meetings are held for many reasons:

      Information Exchange

      Brainstorming

      Decision Making

      Meetings should be planned with an agenda and be kept as short as possible to complete the purpose it was scheduled. Virtual meetings can also be held to include those from distance.

       

      The project manager will call a kick off meeting at the point at which the project management plan is baselined.

      Meetings are not considered best practices. Meetings can be productive or just wasting time. It is dependent on the preparation of the project manager and the focus during the meeting to stay on point.

    • Deliverables

      A deliverable is defined as any product, service or result that is required to be built, designed, or accomplished by the Project Management Plan.

       

      The deliverable will be judged according to the metrics included in the Project management plan in particular the Quality management Plan, (Quality Metrics).

      The deliverable will be inspected in control quality and validate scope. The Project manager must deliver the deliverable to the satisfaction of the customer. It should meet all the metrics specified in the Project Management Plan.

      The deliverable can be delivered at one time or it can be delivered one part at a time. This is very common in software projects.

    • Work performance data

      Work performance data is the raw data collected from the project during the execution phase of the project. The raw data includes cost collection of labor and material used, number of defects, quality measurements.

       

      Other examples of raw data are key performance indicators, technical performance measurements.

       

      All these raw data numbers are passed to the Monitor and Control Processes.

      A cost accounting system is an example of collecting raw performance data.

      This is the only output for raw data. Many of the processes state that they collect information and allude to the fact that they calculate that data, they do not!!! . All processes in the execute area move the data collected to the “Direct and Manage project work” process, and it is passed to the Monitor and Control processes through the output “Work Performance Data”.

    • Project documents - Issue log
    • Change requests

      What should be placed on a Change Request Document? Material Changes or Modification to:

      Material (not to be confused with progressively elaborated updates)

       

      A Deliverables

       

      • Corrective Action (Found by the project team)
      • Preventive Action (Proactive Steps) education, training, tools
      • Defect Repair (Not Found by project team)

       

      B Project Documents

       

      C Project Management Plan (includes all Plans and Baselines)

       

       

      In the middle of the project an engineer discovers a discrepancy in the size of the cable holding a sign in place. He knows this is out of specifications to the blueprints. The engineer opens up a change request and articulates the problem and the potential fix. He then sends it to the “Perform integrated Change control“.

      There are 16 processes that have change request as an output.

       

      Anytime a change affects Scope, Schedule, or Budget. That change must be placed on a change request.

       

      All Material repairs must also be placed on a change request. These changes are one of the following:

      Corrective Action

      Preventive Action

      Defect Repair

    • Project management plan updates - Any component

      This is the progressive elaboration or iterative development of the Project Management Plan.

       

      The Project Management Plan updates includes all the updates to any of the Plans or Baselines in the project.

      The project manager discovered that he needs to purchase or lease a new crane because the crane the company owns is to small for the project. He knows that similar projects were on the way. He needs to update the cost management plan to reflect the usage of the new crane.

      Any plan and any baseline can be updated using this output.

    • Project documents updates - Activity list
    • Project documents updates - Assumption log
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register
    • Project documents updates - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents updates - Risk register
    • Project documents updates - Stakeholder register
    • Organizational process assets updates

    *The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

  • 5 Monitor & Control Project Work

    Monitoring and Controlling the project is critical to project success.  In this process we track, review, and report the progress. We need to be sensitive to the life-cycle of the project.

     

    Collection and Reporting are the two main functions of this process. As reflected by the main output of “Work Performance Reports“.

    The project manager is responsible for the collection and reporting of the project parameters. Tracking and evaluating the current state of the project and reporting the same to stakeholders is critical to project success.

    Within this process we can act on items that are discovered that need to be changed, by using a change request.

     

    But the biggest value of this process is to communicate the project life-cycle metrics to the team and stakeholders in the other processes, that can act on their critical areas of expertise, This is done through the “Work Performance Reports”.

    • Expert judgement

      Expert Judgement us utilized in the Monitor and Control area to review the work performance data and calculate work performance information. Then collate the information into a format that can be disseminated to the stakeholders. Using meetings to collaborate with SME’s will assist in getting the proper information to the stakeholders.

       

      Work performance Reports are the window that gives the team, and stakeholders, the vision of where the project currently is, in comparison to the project management plan and any other project circumstances.

      The project sponsor just received his weekly project management reports. He notices the project is 20 % ahead of budget and 30 % ahead of schedule. He is happy to see this but fears something is being overlooked. His experience tells him to look into the scope of the project to make sure all the features are being addressed.

       

      The sponsor is exercising his expert judgement as he has done many similar projects in the past.

      There are 28 processes with Expert Judgement. The expert judgement that is required is each of those processes requires different skills and experience.

       

      The project manager, depending on his experience he may be an expert in many processes but may still need to bring in SME’s in areas where he knows he needs good advice.

    • Data analysis - Alternatives analysis
    • Data analysis - Cost-benefit analysis
    • Data analysis - Earned value analysis
    • Data analysis - Root cause analysis
    • Data analysis - Trend analysis
    • Data analysis - Variance analysis
    • Decision making
    • Meetings

      Meetings are used to collaborate and make decisions.

       

      Meetings can be Face-to-face, virtual, formal or informal. They will be attended by all stakeholders or SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).

       

      Who decides who attends these meetings. The Project Manager must invite, manage and control who is invited to certain meetings. The meetings should be focused, with an agenda so that the meeting will accomplish the goal of that meeting,

      The project manager will call meetings to review the progress with the CCB and other concerned stakeholders. These periodic meetings will determine the frequency and detail that will go into the reports. Also the project manager may determine who should be on the list of recipients.

      There are 17 processes that have Meetings in their Tool and Techniques. Meetings are held casually between stakeholders all during the project, and these are not restricted to the 17 processes.

    • Work performance reports

      Reports include written documentation intended to communicate project progress to another stakeholder; memo’s, reports, emails, budgets, schedules, variance analysis are examples.

       

      Work Performance Reports are produced to demonstrate the projects progress or lack of progress. It can be any information in any format.

       

      The project manager must have a distribution list on proprietary information. Using the stakeholder and communication management plans will assist the project manager.

       

      Reports produced are shared with the project team and affected stakeholders

      There are 5 different processes that receive reports. Each of these processes have a different requirement for the information and a different way of distributing the reports.

    • Change requests
    • Project management plan updates - Any component

      This is the progressive elaboration or iterative development of the Project Management Plan.

      The Project Management Plan updates includes all the updates to any of the Plans or Baselines in the project.

      The project manager discovered that he needs to purchase or lease a new crane because the crane the company owns is to small for the project. He knows that similar projects were on the way. He needs to update the cost management plan to reflect the usage of the new crane.

      Any plan and any baseline can be updated using this output.

    • Project documents updates - Cost forecasts
    • Project documents updates - Issue log
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register
    • Project documents updates - Risk register
    • Project documents updates - Schedule forecasts

    *The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.

  • 6 Perform Integrated Change Control

    Perform integrated change control is a very active process in project management. If the 47 processes were a river the “Perform Integrated Change Control” process would be a whirlpool. All material changes to a project flow through this process.

    Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests: approving changes and managing changes to deliverable’s, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan: and communicating their disposition.

    Material changes to:

    Deliverables

    Organizational Process Assets

    Project Management Plan

    Project Documents

    Discovery of a mistake in the scope of the project was discovered and rectification is required. A change request would be completed and sent to the CCB within the process (Perform integrated change control).

    Changes may be requested by any stakeholder, but changes should be placed on a change request to be formally input into the perform integrated change control process. These procedures should be followed by all stakeholders and should be performed throughout the project life cycle.

    • Expert judgement

      Expert Judgement is especially valuable to Perform Integrated Change Control. The change control board can use the expertise of team members or other stakeholders.

       

      Stakeholders that could help include:

      Customers, Sponsor

      Professionals

      SME’s Subject matter experts

       

      A change request was submitted for the improvement in the process upgrade materials on a building to reduce the cost. A SME (Subject Matter Expert) a consultant was  retained to review such requests. It was determined by extensive research that the new material requested was within scope. Therefore the change request was approved the the project enjoyed a significant reduction in cost.

      SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) can improve the performance of a project.

       

      But the most value a SME will give to the project is preventing major conceptional errors. Scope is always the most important part of a project. Understanding, controlling, and improving the scope of a project should always be in the forefront of the project managers thoughts. SME’s are critical to assisting in this area.

    • Change control tools

      The Change Control Board (CCB) is *A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating , approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions.

       

       

      Change Control Tools EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors)

       

      A Project Management System

       

      B Project Management Information System (PMIS)

       

      C Configuration Management System

      (Integrated Change Control)

      1. Configuration Identification
      2. Configuration status Accounting
      3. Configuration verification and audit

       

      D Change Control System

       

       

      What should be placed on a Change Request Document? Material Changes or Modification to:

       

      A Deliverables

      • Corrective Action (Found by the project team)
      • Preventive Action (Proactive Steps) education, training, tools
      • Defect Repair (Not Found by project team)

      B Project Documents

      C Project Management Plan (includes all Plans and Baselines)

      D Project Baselines (part of the Project Management Plan)

       

      All changes must go through the Change control tools to verify that the changes fit within the parameters required by the customer.

       

      Using the Configuration Management System will confirm the validity of the change request. All other systems are utilized to implement and communicate the changes.

      All changes to the project must be made with understanding to the needs of the stakeholders including the organizational and environmental considerations and constraints.

    • Data analysis - Alternatives analysis
    • Data analysis - Cost-benefit analysis
    • Decision making - Voting

      Voting

    • Decision making - Multicriteria decision analysis
    • Meetings
    • Approved change requests

      An approved change request has been processed through the CCB (Change Control Board) and is now implemented as procedures dictate.

       

      Approved Change requests will be reflected in all the project files, Project Management Plan and Project Documents must be updated to reflect the Approved Change.

       

      The Approved Change will be implemented in the Direct and manage Project Work Process, and the implementation will be reviewed by the Control Quality process.

      A major change request was approved.

       

      All the project records will be changed to reflect this change: All Plans will be updated. All affected Documents will be updated.

       

      The change log will be updated and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

      Very small changes may not go through the Perform Integrated change control process. This is a gray area and must also be controlled. Also these items must still be documented and sighed off by relevant stakeholders.

       

      All material changes to the project must go through the Perform Integrated change control process. Unfortunately many do not.

       

      Many project team members will make changes without using a change request. It is the responsibility of the Project manager to police the team and other stakeholders to assure all scope, schedule and cost items, and any other updates to the pan are reflected and approved starting with a change request.

    • Project management plan updates - Any component
    • Project documents - Change log

      The change log is utilized to document and communicate every change request that has been approved or rejected.

       

      The approved change requests should document the changes to Scope, Schedule, or Cost baselines, They should reflect, if possible, the affected stakeholders. They should also state the change in the scope statement that has occurred.

       

      The change Log should be updated and communicated immediately after each change.

      A change request was received from the customer. The change was out of scope and out of budget. The CCB rejected the change immediately.

       

      This rejection was placed on the Change Log and communicated to the stakeholder within hours of the rejection of the change request being received so that discussion and resolution could be made.

      The change Log is a dynamic document. This document should have all the detail required to understand the change and the implications to the project.

       

      The rejected change requests should be documented as to why they have been rejected and the stakeholders affected by the rejection.

       

      There should be a template that is used and is easy to understand and review.

    *The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition.

7 Close Project or Phase

The project manager must close all lose ends before he formally closes a project. The filing of the project files or documents should only be done when all these files have been properly reviewed and approved.

 

The deliverable should be delivered per the Project Management Plan, the details of the delivery should be spelled out. An easy hand-off, or a complex transition may be required. Success can be determined by this transition.

 

The key benefit of closing properly is to leave a trail of the project activities that can be followed by subsequent projects. Lessons learned is a valuable asset to the company. If a similar project occurs then these lessons learned will be critical to understanding the scope, schedule, cost, not to mention the other plans in all the knowledge areas.

The project just completed the “Validate Scope” process. The customer was pleased with the results and is pushing for delivery. Upon reviewing the delivery requirements in the project management plan it is noted that a two week testing period before delivery is required, to verify all the features of the deliverable are working.

 

The project manager will follow the plan as required. The customer will be advised and if any change is required it will be discussed and a change request will be completed and sent through “Perform Integrated Change Control”.

 

The change can be output in several processes.

This is one of the most important processes of a project. Why? In this process we leave a trail of breadcrumbs to the whole project. These closed file documents are the asset of the performing organization. These files are the only remnants of the project. They have incredible value.

 

Never treat this process lightly.

  • Expert judgement

    Expert judgement is utilized in the closing process to make sure that the closing process is done as required by the project management plan. There may be standards or regulations that need to be followed in this closing.

     

    The project manager may use other stakeholders or consultants if their expertise is required. He may also use the PMO (Project Management Office), or professional organizations.

    The project manager is delivering a complicated software package that requires accounting knowledge. He brings in one of his team members to demonstrate and instruct the customer on the features of the software. He is better equipped to discuss the technical aspects in accounting terms .

    If the project manager is not an expert in the deliverable, He will need to rely on others to guide him through the scope of the project.

     

    In reality most project managers become experts in the deliverable he is managing.

  • Data analysis - Document analysis
  • Data analysis - Regression analysis
  • Data analysis - Trend analysis
  • Data analysis - Variance analysis
  • Meetings

    Meetings are used to collaborate and make decisions.

    Meetings can be Face-to-face, virtual, formal or informal. They will be attended by all stakeholders or SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).

    Who decides who attends these meetings. The Project Manager must invite, manage and control who is invited to certain meetings. The meetings should be focused, with an agenda so that the meeting will accomplish the goal of that meeting,

    The project manager is uncertain as to the location of delivery of his 10 ton deliverable and the cost of possible transportation. He calls a meeting of the sponsor, customer to discuss and resolve.

    There are 17 processes that have Meetings in their Tool and Techniques. Meetings are held casually between stakeholders all during the project, and these are not restricted to the 17 processes.

  • Final product, service or result transition

    The project management plan is followed to deliver the final product or service.

     

    Variances from the project management plan must be placed on a change request.

    Deliverable is delivered

    This output should be the best documented activity in the project. This is the final activity in the project. It is the subject of dreams of the project manager.

     

    Challenges here show a lack of attention to detail.

  • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register
  • Final report

    The final report provides a summary of the project performance. It can include information such as:

    • Summary level description of the project or phase.
    • Scope objectives, the criteria used to evaluate the scope, and evidence that the completion criteria were met.
    • Quality objectives, the criteria used to evaluate the project and product quality, and the verification and validation information.
    • Cost objectives, including the acceptable cost range, actual costs, and reasons for variances.
    • Summary of how the final product, service, or result achieved the benefits that the project was undertaken to address. If the benefits are not met at the close of the project, indicate the degree to which they were achieved and estimates for future benefits realization.
    • Summary of how the final product, service, or result achieved the business needs identified in the business plan. If the business needs are not met at the close of the project, indicate the degree to which they were achieved and estimates for when the business needs will be met in the future.
  • Organizational process assets updates

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are updated in this process with several items:

    • Project Files – documentation of the projects activities, project management plan (All Plans and Baselines) documents ( all other documents)
    • Project or phase closure documents – those items that are peculiar to the closing process. Like reviews and project verification documentation.
    • Historical Information – Lessons Learned that include risks, issues, and special techniques.

    The project manager must personally review and update the OPA’s. This can be delegated but he should realize that he will be held responsible by the next person to review these closed records.

    Of all the 14 outputs of this ITTO this is the most important as it is updating all the the projects documents.

*The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.

2 Scope

*Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.

 
  • 1 Plan Scope Management

    The creation of a scope management plan is to provide guidance and direction on how the scope will be managed during the project.

    The scope management plan is a subsidiary to the project management plan.

     

    The project manager has seen alternatives to the project that have features different to the current project, He decides he wants to investigate the current scope, He first reviews the scope management plan for direction in his investigation.

    Scope must be determined before any schedule or budget can be completed. Developing a scope statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary are critical to project success.

    • Project charter

      The Project Charter is an input to the Plan Scope Management process because it gives a high level or possibly specific scope of the project. The Project Charter has articulated a high level Scope, Schedule, and a Budget. Also depending on the developer of the charter, it could contain, risks, quality requirements, preassigned project team members and many other insights and facts concerning the project. These insights and facts in the Project Charter will provide the outline of the Scope management Plan, with Metrics required to be met, and high level, Scope, Schedule and Budget requirements.

      The Scope of the project is first articulated in the “Project Statement of Work”. Then included in the Project Charter at a high level of understanding.

       

      The project manager uses this information to plan how he will approach the project scope statement and create the WBS.

      The project charter is considered a high level project management plan in some companies, as it has all the ingredients of the project management plan.

    • Project management plan - Quality management plan
    • Project management plan - Project life cycle description
    • Project management plan - Development approach
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 27 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      38 out of 47 processes have OPA’s as an input to the process. Only 9 processes do not have OPA’s as an input.

    • Expert judgement

      Expert judgement in the Plan Scope Management process would include those who have special knowledge of the deliverable, industry or competition. It would include those with specialized education, skills, experience, or training that could assist the project manger to understand how to create the scope management plan.

       

      Expert Judgement is a tool and technique that is used in 28 different processes. The expert judgment that is required for use in each process is different and depends on the skills required to produce the output of the process under examination. Although the term “expert judgement”, is used 28 times, the definition of what expert judgment is needed will be different for each of the processes involved.

      Your project is to create a new headache medicine delivery system. The project manager brings in SME’s to assist in his planning.

      Expert Judgement is seeking out those that are considered SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) in the areas under consideration.

       

       

    • Data analysis - Alternatives analysis

      A data analysis technique that can be used for this process includes, but is not limited to , alternatives analysis. Various ways of collecting requirements, elaborating the project and product scope, creating the product, validating the scope, and controlling the scope are evaluated.

    • Meetings

      Meetings are held by the project manger to discuss how the scope will be developed, maintained and updated. The PM will bring in all the stakeholders that can contribute to this effort.

      A meeting is called by the project manger to go over a list of features the last project provided to the customer. This project is for another customer with different requirements. The basic product is the same.

       

      In the meeting the PM brings in the SME’s to discuss the feartures.

      Meeting can be held at any level in the organization. if any significant information is discussed or agreed to between stakeholders it is advisable to document the decisions in a document or a plan, one that can be distributed to the affected stakeholders.

    • Project management plan - Scope management plan

      The scope management plan is component of or a subsidiary of the project management plan. The scope management plan describes how the scope will be determined, by what process and by what means. Who should be involved. Items that could be included are:

      • Process for preparing the project scope statement
      • Process for creation of the WBS and WBS Dictionary
      • Process for maintaining updating the Scope
      • Scope acceptance metrics or procedure
      • Scope change proceedures

      The scope management plan will be followed when creating the scope baseline.

      The scope management plan is an input in the next three processes.

    • Project management plan - Requirements management plan

      The requirements management plan is part of the project management plan. It describes how we will collect the requirements for the scope of the deliverable.

       

      Although it is only used once as an input in the collect requirements process. It is valuable to go through the thought process to uncover all requirements

      The project manger brings in SME’s to determine how to find all the requirements for the headache medicine delivery system.

      This output plan is only used once in collect requirements.

    *The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

  • 2 Collect Requirements

    Collect requirements is the process of collecting and documenting ALL stakeholder requirements. It is important to speak to all stakeholders when looking for these requirements. Even try to find things that the customer does not know he wants. Also look for alternatives to the requirements as this will also expose possible requirements.

    Knowing all the requirements will assist in managing the project scope. These requirements will also help with scheduling and costing.

    Requirements can be broken down into categories, to mention a few:

    • Business requirements
    • Stakeholder requirements
    • Solution requirements
    • Part to Part requirements
    • Transition requirements
    • Special skill requirements
    • Quality requirements

    The project manager is unfamiliar with the customer, so he has a meeting with the prior PM who has had dealing with the customer to determine any special needs the customer has required in the past. He also reviews the lessons learned to determine special circumstances in the last project with this customer.

    Collect Requirements is the same as Voice of the Customer in Six Sigma or  when doing the tool “Quality Function Deployment”.

     

    The Industry and product must be taken into consideration when collecting requirements as there may be SME’s required.

    • Project charter

      A project charter serves as a high level template for your project. It is used in order to gain approval to begin work, and to requisition the money and assets required to complete the project. It is considered a the first step, to start the project. Without a completed and authorized Project Charter a project does not exist.

      The project charter document, is the first document produced by a project. Once it has been approved then the project planning may begin.

      There are numerous free examples of a project charter on the internet. I will not reproduce one here,

      It is important to note that many companies have a template they like to use for project charters and these are unique for their purposes, industry or products.

      The Project Charter is a unique document. It should not be updated once it is completed and authorized. It is used as an input to eight (8) other processes to provide high level input to, Develop Project Management Plan, scope, time, cost, risk and stakeholder analysis.

    • Project management plan - Scope management plan
    • Project management plan - Requirements management plan
    • Project management plan - Stakeholder engagement plan
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Project documents - Stakeholder register

      The stakeholder register contains all the details of all the identified stakeholders.

      This is an important document, It is updated throughout the project, if more stakeholders are identified the same analytics need to be completed to know where they stand.

      Some of the items that are placed on the stakeholder register are:

      • Identification Information
      • Assessment information
      • Stakeholder classification

      The project manager will create the stakeholder register as soon as the project charter is signed. He will invite those stakeholders or SME’s to participate that can make a contribution.

      The PM must be diplomatic when creating a stakeholder register as there may be sensitive information that is required for the project concerning the stakeholder. Therefore there may be a private stakeholder attachment that may be created and only available to small select group.

    • Business documents - Business case
    • Agreements
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
    • Project documents - Requirements documentation

      Requirements documentation describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more about the requirements is known. Before being baselined, requirements need to be unambiguous, traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. The format of a requirements document may range from a simple document listing all the requirements categorized by stakeholder, and priority, to more elaborate forms containing an executive summary, detailed descriptions, and attachments. The following can be included in the requirements documentation:

      • Business requirements
      • Stakeholder requirements
      • Solution requirements
      • Project requirements
      • Engineering requirements
      • Security Requirements

      There could be 50 other categories!!!

       

      The PM should go into sufficient detail so that all the stakeholders reading this document have a clear understanding of the requirements.

       

      The PM must respect the needs of the stakeholders. The Requirements documentation should be written to the level of the least knowledgeable of the team or stakeholders.

      In Quality the requirements documentation is call “Voice of the Customer” or “VOC”. VOC is used primarily to uncover the quality or feature requirements of the end user and customer.

    • Project documents - Requirements traceability matrix

      The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverable that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.

      Tracing includes, but is not limited to , tracing requirements for the the following:

      • Business needs, opportunities, goals, and objectives
      • Project objectives
      • Project scope/WBS deliverables
      • Product design
      • Product development
      • Test strategy and test scenarios
      • High-level requirements to more detailed requirements

       

      The PM should create the requirements traceability matrix at the same time he creates the requirements documentation.

       

      The requirements traceability matrix is an input to only 2 processes, Validate scope and Control scope.

    *The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.

  • 4 Create WBS
    • Project management plan - Scope baseline

      SCOPE BASELINE

      Scope Baseline is a combination of three Items

      • Project Scope Statement
      • WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
      • WBS Dictionary

       

      Project Scope Statement – The Project Scope Statement includes a detailed description of the scope of the project. This written articulation of the work that needs to be done to complete the deliverable and the project includes many items; Major Deliverables with metrics of success, assumptions and constraints, and any detailed attachments required to understand the project scope statement

       

      WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) – The WBS is the decomposition of the work required to be completed to build the deliverable. It is created in a hierarchical order; each level of decomposition goes into greater detail. At the lowest level of decomposition, scope, time and cost can be estimated, and during execution can be compared to actual performance. Control accounts are at the top of the WBS next are control accounts, and finally we have the work package that is the lowest level in the WBS. The WBS is a high level chart of assembles and subassemblies with no detail descriptions.

       

      WBS Dictionary – The WBS Dictionary is the Detail that was left out of the WBS. It is the activity, scheduling and costing data for every work package. The detail in this document is only limited by your imagination. Anything that is relevant and or helpful to the project team, or other stakeholders is included. Some items that can be or should be included are:

      • Code of account identifier (for Production or Accounting)
      • Description of work (Statement of Work: subassembly project statement of work)
      • Assumptions and constraints
      • Responsible organization (Could be team member or stakeholder)
      • Schedule milestones
      • Associated schedule activities
      • Resources required
      • Cost estimates
      • Quality requirements
      • Acceptance requirements
      • Technical references (Detail of specific technical requirements)
      • Agreement information (contract, memo, sponsor or customer requirements)
    • Project documents updates - Assumption log
    • Project documents updates - Requirements documentation

    *The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

   
3 Schedule

*Project time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

   
6 Control Schedule

*The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

 
4 Cost

*Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

     
5 Quality

*Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

 
1 Plan Quality Management

*The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.

2 Manage Quality

*The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.

 
6 Resource

*Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.

   
7 Communications

*Project Communications Management. Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.

 
2 Manage Communications

*The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the Communication Management Plan.

 
8 Risk

*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.