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Process Group
Knowledge Area
1 Initiating

*Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.

2 Planning

*Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action rquired to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.

3 Executing

*Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.

4 Monitoring & Controlling

*Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.

5 Closing

*Those processes performed to finalize all activiities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.

1 Integration

*Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.

1 Develop Project Charter

The “Develop project charter”,  should provide a link to the business strategic objectives. The project charter should define how the current project achieves the business strategic objectives. This document should basically establish a partnership between the performing organization and the project.

 

The project charter is an input to each of the “Plan management” and  “Plan engagement” processes. Therefore there should be time spent in the development of the project charter to address each of the  knowledge areas input requirements.

You are a PM (Project Manager) in a large company which employs a PMO (Project Management Office). You are asked to prepare a document that will describe and communicate the scope and potential benefits of a certain project. You as the PM will utilize a template project charter document to prepare a project charter for the sponsor and stakeholders to review and approve to start the project.

 

Once approved the project charter will not be updated, it will be utilized as an input document for other processes to start and develop the Project Management Plan, other subsidiary project plans and other important project documents.

  1. Develop Project Charter Process
  2. The Develop Project Charter, once documented, is in essence the birth certificate of the project and constitutes the first document in the lifespan of the project. (MAD 10/24/2015)

 

*The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

2 Develop Project Management Plan

The “Project Management Plan” contains all the plans and baselines literally. This feature of the project management plan means that all the requirements for execution, monitoring and controlling and closing are spelled out in detail in this Record or File. The project management plan is not a project document by definition, Project Records are anything that is not called a plan or baseline.

The Project Management Plan is Progressively Elaborated or iteratively developed during the project. The term to use is “Progressively Elaborated”. There are nineteen (19) outputs of “Project Management Plan Updates”, the use of this output is to update any of the plans or baselines with more definitive information. Project Management Plan Updates is not used for project Changes. All changes use the output, “Change Request”. Change Requests are then processed through “Perform Integrated Change Control” process.

The Project Management Plan is a voluminous file.  Examples on the internet are available and the size and scope is determined by the size and scope of the project itself.

There are many companies that continue to develop the project charter and utilize the project charter as the project management plan. For smaller projects this may serve the needs of the organization. Any project of size and complexity would be served better by following all the processes in the PMP process chart.

*The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.

  • 3 Direct & Manage Project Work

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of ALL project physical work. This process includes all the work of the processes of the Execute Process Group.

     

    The purpose of this process is to produce the deliverable as outlined in the Project Management Plan. One of the outputs of this process is indeed the “Deliverable“. All the work on the deliverable is done in this process, all other processes in the execute process group, support this process.

     

    A second very important output here is “Work Performance Data“. All the data collected throughout the execution is contained in this output. This output becomes the input to Nine (9) other processes. All the processes in Monitoring and Controlling except those in the Integration Knowledge area.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of the Project Management Plan.

     

    Execution means the work on the deliverable. All the physical work is done here. Planning and Monitoring and Controlling is done in other process groups.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the only process where the deliverable is produced. All the work is done in execution. All approved change requests are implemented and completed in this process.

    *The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

  • 4 Manage Project Knowledge

    Knowledge is commonly split into two different categories:

     

    1   Explicit Knowledge – knowledge that can be readily codified using words, pictures, and numbers, and

     

    2   Tacit Knowledge – knowledge that is personal and difficult to express, such as beliefs, insights, experience, and Know-how.

     

    It is a common misconception that managing knowledge involves just documenting it so it can be shared. Another common misconception is that managing knowledge involves just obtaining lessons learned at the end of the project, in order to use it in the future projects. Only codified explicit knowledge can be shared in this way. But codified explicit knowledge lacks context and is open to different interpretations, so even though it can easily be shared, it isn’t always understood or applied in the right way. Tacit knowledge has context built in but is very difficult to codify. It resides in the minds of individual experts or in social groups and situations, and is normally shared through conversations and interactions between people.

     

     

    In Process

    In Process

    The process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project objectives and contribute to organizational learning.

  • 5 Monitor & Control Project Work

    What do we do in “Monitor and Control Project Work”?

    1. Compare plan performance against actual Difference is variance
    2. Assess performance to determine if corrective or preventive actions are required
    3. Check on project risks
    4. Maintain information base of project progress to completion
    5. Provide status reporting of project progress to stakeholders
    6. Provide updated forecasts of scope, schedule, budget
    7. Monitor implementation of “Approved Change Requests”
    8. Ensure that the project stays aligned with the business needs

     

    Monitoring and Controlling the project is critical to project success.  In this process we track, review, and report the progress. We need to be sensitive to the life-cycle of the project.

     

    Collection and Reporting are the two main functions of this process. As reflected by the main output of “Work Performance Reports“.

    The project manager is responsible for the collection and reporting of the project parameters. Tracking and evaluating the current state of the project and reporting the same to stakeholders is critical to project success.

    Within this process we can act on items that are discovered that need to be changed, by using a change request.

     

    But the biggest value of this process is to communicate the project life-cycle metrics to the team and stakeholders in the other processes, that can act on their critical areas of expertise, This is done through the “Work Performance Reports”.

    *The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.

  • 6 Perform Integrated Change Control

    Perform integrated change control is a very active process in project management. If the 49 processes were a river the “Perform Integrated Change Control” process would be a whirlpool. All material changes to a project flow through this process.

    Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests: approving changes and managing changes to deliverable’s, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan: and communicating their disposition.

    Material changes to:

    Deliverables

    • Corrective Action
    • Preventive Action
    • Defect Repair

    Organizational Process Assets

    Project Management Plan

    • Plans
    • Baselines

    Project Documents

    Discovery of a mistake in the scope of the project was discovered and rectification is required. A change request would be completed and sent to the CCB within the process (Perform integrated change control).

    Changes may be requested by any stakeholder, but changes should be placed on a change request to be formally input into the perform integrated change control process. These procedures should be followed by all stakeholders and should be performed throughout the project life cycle.

    *The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition.

7 Close Project or Phase

The project manager must close all lose ends before he formally closes a project. The filing of the project files or documents should only be done when all these files have been properly reviewed and approved.

 

The deliverable should be delivered per the Project Management Plan, the details of the delivery should be spelled out. An easy hand-off, or a complex transition may be required. Success can be determined by this transition.

 

The key benefit of closing properly is to leave a trail of the project activities that can be followed by subsequent projects. Lessons learned is a valuable asset to the company. If a similar project occurs then these lessons learned will be critical to understanding the scope, schedule, cost, not to mention the other plans in all the knowledge areas.

The project just completed the “Validate Scope” process. The customer was pleased with the results and is pushing for delivery. Upon reviewing the delivery requirements in the project management plan it is noted that a two week testing period before delivery is required, to verify all the features of the deliverable are working.

 

The project manager will follow the plan as required. The customer will be advised and if any change is required it will be discussed and a change request will be completed and sent through “Perform Integrated Change Control”.

 

The change can be output in several processes.

This is one of the most important processes of a project. Why? In this process we leave a trail of breadcrumbs to the whole project. These closed file documents are the asset of the performing organization. These files are the only remnants of the project. They have incredible value.

 

Never treat this process lightly.

*The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.

2 Scope

*Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.

 
  • 1 Plan Scope Management

    The creation of a scope management plan is to provide guidance and direction on how the scope will be managed during the project.

    The scope management plan is a subsidiary to the project management plan.

     

    The project manager has seen alternatives to the project that have features different to the current project, He decides he wants to investigate the current scope, He first reviews the scope management plan for direction in his investigation.

    Scope must be determined before any schedule or budget can be completed. Developing a scope statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary are critical to project success.

    *The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

  • 2 Collect Requirements

    Collect requirements is the process of collecting and documenting ALL stakeholder requirements. It is important to speak to all stakeholders when looking for these requirements. Even try to find things that the customer does not know he wants. Also look for alternatives to the requirements as this will also expose possible requirements.

    Knowing all the requirements will assist in managing the project scope. These requirements will also help with scheduling and costing.

    Requirements can be broken down into categories, to mention a few:

    • Business requirements
    • Stakeholder requirements
    • Solution requirements
    • Part to Part requirements
    • Transition requirements
    • Special skill requirements
    • Quality requirements

    The project manager is unfamiliar with the customer, so he has a meeting with the prior PM who has had dealing with the customer to determine any special needs the customer has required in the past. He also reviews the lessons learned to determine special circumstances in the last project with this customer.

    Collect Requirements is the same as Voice of the Customer in Six Sigma or  when doing the tool “Quality Function Deployment”.

     

    The Industry and product must be taken into consideration when collecting requirements as there may be SME’s required.

    *The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.

  • 3 Define Scope

    Define Scope Statement process articulates the project scope in writing. It must be descriptive enough to inform the project team, the details of the project activities and the form and features of the deliverable.

     

    The “Scope Statement” should include the following, but is not limited to the following:

     

    1.   Product scope description
    2.   Deliverables – description, forms, features
    3.   Acceptance criteria
    4.   Project exclusions

    *The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.

  • 4 Create WBS

    Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components. This provides a framework of the work to be delivered. This process could be performed just once in small or short projects, but it may be done many times in large or iteratively developed projects.

     

    The WBS provides a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of the work to be carried out by the project team. This hierarchical decomposition is done in tandem with the product and project. Both must be accounted for.

     

    Terms that must be understood:

    1. Control Account

    2. Planning Package

    3. Work Package

    *The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

 
  • 5 Validate Scope

    Formal acceptance of the deliverable is a best practice of project management. This assists the project manager if there are questions after the project has been closed.

     

    The deliverable is reviewed by the customer and it is similar to the review done in “Control quality” but it is done for a different purpose. Validate scope is to get the acceptance of the deliverable, control quality is done to verify that the deliverable meets the specifications and metrics required by the project.

     

     

    Validate scope and Control quality can be done at the same time. If separated, Control quality will always be done first.

    *The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.

  • 6 Control Scope

    Control scope process is monitoring the scope throughout the project. Any changes to product or project scope must be documented and implemented properly. Uncontrolled scope variations are detrimental to project management.

     

    All changes to scope, especially:

     

    1. Corrective actions

    2. Preventive actions

    3. Defect repairs

     

    These items must be prepared and documented in a “Change Request” and sent to “Perform integrated change control” for approval.

    NO changes to scope can be implemented any other way. Period

     

    Terms to know:

     

    Gold Plating –  Scope improvement with the project managers knowledge that has not gone through a change request.

    Scope Creep – Scope change without the project managers knowledge that has not gone through a change request.

     

    *The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.

 
3 Schedule

*Project time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

 
  • 1 Plan Schedule Management

    The “Schedule management plan” outlines the criteria for developing, monitoring, and controlling the project schedule. It can be either a formal or informal plan, and may be either very detailed or broad.

     

    The Schedule Management Plan can establish the following:

     

    1. Project schedule methodology and scheduling tool to be used

    2. Level of accuracy for determining activity duration estimates and contingency amounts

    3. Units of measure for time and quantity

    4. Performance measurement rules and procedures for updating schedule status and progress

    5. Variance control thresholds for monitoring schedule performance

    *The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.

  • 2 Define Activities

     The “Define activities” process takes the “work packages” developed in the “Create WBS” process, and decomposes them. Each work package is broken down to the activity level that can be understood, to create the component or subassembly being produced.

     

    The activity level is what is used for the detail schedule activities. These activities are used to find the critical path of the project. The longest path to finish the project.

    *The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

  • 3 Sequence Activities

    In this process we define the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency.

     

    In “Sequence activities” we define the logical sequence of work activity to be completed. We place these activities in order, of work activity.

     

     

    We are creating a diagram that shows each activity as it is worked, to be able to determine how long it will take us to complete each group of activities for a subassembly or for the entire product or project.

    *The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.

  • 4 Estimate Activity Durations

    *The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

  • 5 Develop Schedule

    Developing an acceptable project schedule is a iterative process. The schedule model is used to determine the planned start and finish dates for the project activities and milestones based on the best available information. schedule development can require the review of and revision of duration estimates, resource estimates, and schedule reserves to establish an approved project schedule that can serve as a baseline to track progress.

    Key steps include defining the project milestones identifying and sequencing activities, and estimating durations. Once the activity start and finish dates have been determined, it is common to have th project staff assigned to the activities review their assigned activities. The staff confirms that the start and finish dates present no conflict with resource calendars or assigned activities on other projects or tasks and thus are still valid.

    The schedule is then analyzed to determine conflicts with logical relationships and if resource leveling is required before the schedule is approved the baselined. Revising and maintaining the project schedule model to sustain a realistic schedule continues throughout the duration of the project.

    *The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.

 
6 Control Schedule

*The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

 
4 Cost

*Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

 
  • 1 Plan Cost Management

    *The process that establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.

  • 2 Estimate Costs

    Cost estimates are reviewed during the project life cycle. There are Three ranges for estimates:

     

     

    Rough order of Magnitude (ROM)         -25% to + 75%

    Are used at the beginning of the project

     

     

    Budget  estimate                                 -10% to + 25%

    Are used during the project

     

     

    Definitive estimate                               –  5% to +10%

    Are used at the end of the project

     

     

    *The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.

  • 3 Determine Budget

    *The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.

 
4 Control Costs

*The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.

 
5 Quality

*Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

 
1 Plan Quality Management

Project Quality Management accomplishes three things

 

  • Incorporates the performing organizations quality policies
  • Controls the project and product quality requirements to meet stakeholder expectations
  • Supports the continuous process improvement activities of the performing organization

*The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.

2 Manage Quality

*The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.

3 Control Quality

*The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.

 
6 Resource

*Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.

 
  • 1 Plan Resource Management

    Resource planning is used to determine and identify an approach to ensure that sufficient resources are available for the successful completion of the project. Project resources may include team members, supplies, materials, equipment, services and facilities. Effective resource planning should consider and plan for the availability of, or competition for, scarce resources.

    Those resources can be obtained from the organization’s internal asset base or from outside the organization through a procurement process. Other projects may be competing for the same resources required for the project at the same time and location This may significantly impact project costs, schedules, risks, quality, and other project areas.

    *Plan Resource Management is the process of defining how to estimate, acquire, manage, and use team and physical resources.

  • 2 Estimate Activity Resources

    Video “Estimate Activity Resources”

    *The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.

  • 3 Acquire Resources

    *The process of obtaining team members, facilities, equipment, materials, supplies, and other resources necessary to complete project work.

  • 4 Develop Team

    *The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.

  • 5 Manage Team

    *The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.

6 Control Resources

Control resources is the process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned, as well as monitoring the planned versus actual utilization of resources and taking corrective action as necessary.

 
7 Communications

*Project Communications Management. Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.

 
1 Plan Communications Management

*The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available organizational assets.

2 Manage Communications

*The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the Communication Management Plan.

3 Monitor Communications

*The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.

 
8 Risk

*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.

 
  • 1 Plan Risk Management

    Plan Risk Management should be performed once the predefined point in the project have been defined. Also, the project scope should be well known. Without these two items, risk management would be difficult at best and we would be risk guessing.

     

    The Plan Risk management process should be started when the project is in its infancy,  and completed early in the project. Identifying is an ongoing activity throughout the project.

     

    Tailoring considerations

    Because each project is unique, it is necessary to tailor the way Project Risk Management processes are applied. Considerations for tailoring include but are not limited to:

     

    • Project size
    • Project complexity
    • Project importance
    • Development approach

    This process lends itself to a template. If the performing organization does similar projects this is especially true.

    Risk analysis should be looked at by knowledge area. Are there Scope risks, Schedule risks, Cost risks, and so forth. Looking in these areas will expose risks in all other areas of the project.

    Most Project Managers do a poor job of planning for risk management activities, They wait till a risk occurs then start the review. If scheduled risk management activities are planned in advance and communicated to those subject matter experts required. The proactive planning is more likely to be accomplished.

    *The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.

  • 2 Identify Risks

    Individual project risk – is an uncertain event or condition that , if it occurs has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives.

     

    Overall project risk – is the effect of uncertainty on the project as a whole, arising from all sources of uncertainty including individual risks, representing the exposure of stakeholders to the implications of variation in project outcome, both positive and negative.

     

    *The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.

  • 3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

    *The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.

  • 4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

    *The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.

  • 5 Plan Risk Responses

    The process of developing options, selecting strategies, and agreeing on the actions to address overall project risk exposure, as will as to treat individual project risks

    *The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.

6 Implement Risk Responses

Implement Risk responses is the process of implementing agreed-upon risk response plans.

7 Monitor Risks

*The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.

 
9 Procurement

*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.

 
1 Plan Procurement Management

*The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.

2 Conduct Procurements

The key benefit of this process is that it select a qualified seller and implements the legal agreement for delivery. The end results of the process are the established agreements including formal contracts .

*The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.

3 Control Procurements

*The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate, and closing out contracts.

 
10 Stakeholder

*Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.

1 Identify Stakeholders

This process frequently occurs for the first time in a project either prior to or at the same time of the project charter is developed and approved. It is repeated as necessary, but should be performed at the start of each phase and when a significant change in the project or the organization occurs. Each time the identification process is repeated, the project management plan components and project documents should be consulted to identify relevant project stakeholders.

 

The key benefit to the PM is that it allows the project manager to identify the appropriate focus for each stakeholder or group of stakeholders.

 

This process is the first pass at analyzing the stakeholders. The second pass is in plan stakeholder engagement,   In identify stakeholders we determine those stakeholders who can assist the project and those that can not assist us or hold us back. Are they supporters or resisters? This must be completed right after the project charter is signed.   A Template of a stakeholder register is a good idea to assist in its creation,

Having a meeting with the sponsor and customer would go a long way in identifying the stakeholders. Reviewing  the contract, schematics, blueprints, and other scope documentation will assist in identifying SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) to bring into the stakeholder pool.

Not knowing or understanding your stakeholders expectations immediately, can be a big mistake. If the right stakeholder is not on board it could effect the project negatively and also slow progress on the project.

*The process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project; and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, inter-dependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success. This process is performed periodically during the project as needed.

2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement

*The process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success.

3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement

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*The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.

4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

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*The process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.

 
*Products, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria.
*Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
*The quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity.
*A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
*The process of calling public attention to a project or effort.
Any document or communication between two or more parties that defines the arrangement between the parties. This can be verbal or a complex contract. There are several agreements or contracts used in the project management life cycle.
*A technique used to evaluate identified options In order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.
*A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
*A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
*Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
*A review of the change requests to verify that these were implemented as approved.
*A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved
*A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.
Schedule and Cost performance may indicate the need to revise the way duration, cost, or resource estimates are developed.
*Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
*The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
*A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
*Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.
A change request document is required, and completed, when changes are made to the project. Example of changes are: Changes in execution of the deliverable, Corrective action, preventive action, defect repair, Material changes to all plans or documents, lastly any baseline change.
*The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
*Project contracts or other procurement agreements that have been formally acknowledged by the proper authorizing agent as being finalized and signed off.
*An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
*A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
*A description, analogy or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
*Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
*An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
*Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflictual situation to achieve a resolution.
*The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
*Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project's WBS or for a given cost control account.
*The approved version of the time-phased project budge, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
*A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
*A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
*A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
*A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
*Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
*A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.
*Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding.
*An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements.
*The process of gathering a corpus of information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.
*Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio.
As a result of develop project team and manage project team there may be a need to update organization performance appraisals and personel skill requirements.
*Expert Judgment provided is based upon expertise needed or required in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training. Tailoring is an aspect of expert judgement.
*An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.
Facilitation Techniques are brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving and any other communication or colaboration technique that assists the development of the Project Charter or Project Management Plan.
Transition or delivery of the deliverable that was the object of the project. It must be delivered as required by the project management plan.
*An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.