Examination Content

Initiating

Task 1 Initiating

Develop Project Charter

Business documents - Business case

Organizational process assets

Agreements

Data gathering - Focus groups

Project documents - Assumption log

Meetings

Project documents - Assumption log

Project charter

Task 2 Initiating

Develop Project Charter

Business documents - Business case

Agreements

Expert judgement

Task 3 Initiating

Identify Stakeholders

Stakeholder analysis

Meetings

Expert judgement

Task 4 Initiating

Develop Project Charter

Project statement of work

Enterprise environmental factors

Organizational process assets

Expert judgement

Task 5 Initiating

Develop Project Charter

Project statement of work

Identify Stakeholders

Stakeholder analysis

Task 6 Initiating

Develop Project Charter

Expert judgement

Facilitation techniques

Task 7 Initiating

Business case

Expert judgement

Meetings

Task 8 Initiating

Identify Stakeholders

Meetings

Planning

Task 1 Planning

Collect Requirements

Project documents - Requirements documentation

Project documents - Requirements traceability matrix

Project documents - Assumption log

Project charter

Project documents - Lessons learned register

Create WBS

Project management plan - Scope baseline

Task 2 Planning

Scope statement

Create WBS

Scope baseline

Scope management plan

Task 3 Planning

Project management plan - Scope baseline

Project management plan - Schedule baseline

Acquire Resources

Project charter

Three-point estimating

Analogous estimating

Parametric estimating

Bottom-up estimating

Project management plan - Cost baseline

Task 4 Planning

Project charter

Milestone list

Scope statement

Project schedule

Task 5 Planning

Plan Resource Management

Organization charts and position descriptions

Organizational theory

Human resource management plan

Task 6 Planning

Plan Communications Management

Project management plan - Project management plan

Enterprise environmental factors

Stakeholder register

Manage Communications

Performance reporting

Task 7 Planning

Plan Procurement Management

Project management plan - Project management plan

Scope baseline

Project management plan - Cost baseline

Project management plan - Schedule baseline

Task 8 Planning

Plan Quality Management

Requirements documentation

Project scope statement

Risk register

Requirements documentation

Cost of quality (COQ)

Task 9 Planning

Develop Project Management Plan

Change control tools

Task 10 Planning

Plan Risk Management

Risk management plan

Identify Risks

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Risk register

Plan Risk Responses

Task 11 Planning

Project management plan - Project management plan

Organizational process assets

Facilitation techniques

Expert judgement

Task 12 Planning

Project management plan - Project management plan

Facilitation techniques

Organizational process assets

Analytical techniques

Task 13 Planning

Plan Stakeholder Engagement

Stakeholder analysis

Analytical techniques

Meetings

Stakeholder management plan

Executing

Task 1 Executing

Acquire Resources

Resource calendars

Human resource management plan

Procurement management plan

Task 2 Executing

Procurement management plan

Develop Team

Team performance assessments

Task 3 Executing

Manage Quality

Quality management and control tools

Quality audits

Task 4 Executing

Direct & Manage Project Work

Approved change requests

Change log

Task 5 Executing

Monitor Risks

Variance and trend analysis

Risk reasessment

Risk audits

Meetings

Task 6 Executing

Manage Communications

Communication management plan

Performance reporting

Project communications

Task 7 Executing

Manage Stakeholder Engagement

Stakeholder management plan

Interpersonal skills

Management skills

Monitoring and Controlling

Task 1 Monitoring and Controlling

Work performance data

Work performance information

Work performance reports

Task 2 Monitoring and Controlling

Perform Integrated Change Control

Change requests

Change control tools

Approved change requests

Approved change request review

Validated changes

Work performance reports

Task 3 Monitoring and Controlling

Control Quality

Inspection

Project documents - Quality control measurements

Work performance information

Task 4 Monitoring and Controlling

Monitor Risks

Risk reasessment

Risk audits

Work performance information

Task 5 Monitoring and Controlling

Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

Issue log

Change requests

Work performance information

Task 6 Monitoring and Controlling

Monitor & Control Project Work

Organizational process assets

Project documents updates

Organizational process assets updates

Task 7 Monitoring and Controlling

Control Procurements

Procurement performance reviews

Inspections and audits

Performance reporting

Work performance information

Closing

Task 1 Closing

Validate Scope

Inspection

Decision making - Voting

Accepted deliverables

Task 2 Closing

Close Project or Phase

Project management plan - All components

Data analysis - Document analysis

Meetings

Final product, service or result transition

Task 3 Closing

Close Project or Phase

Project management plan - All components

Business documents - Business case

Business documents - Benefits management plan

Data analysis - Document analysis

Meetings

Final product, service or result transition

Final report

Task 4 Closing

Close Project or Phase

Project management plan - Project management plan

Meetings

Organizational process assets updates

Task 5 Closing

Close Project or Phase

Organizational process assets

Meetings

Organizational process assets updates

Task 6 Closing

Close Project or Phase

Organizational process assets

Meetings

Expert judgement

Organizational process assets updates

Task 7 Closing

Close Project or Phase

Meetings

Analytical techniques

Organizational process assets updates


Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
0 0 0

Description

Description



Process Group
Knowledge Area
1 Initiating

*Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.

2 Planning

*Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action rquired to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.

3 Executing

*Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.

4 Monitoring & Controlling

*Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.

5 Closing

*Those processes performed to finalize all activiities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.

1 Integration

*Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.

1 Develop Project Charter

The “Develop project charter”,  should provide a link to the business strategic objectives. The project charter should define how the current project achieves the business strategic objectives. This document should basically establish a partnership between the performing organization and the project.

 

The project charter is an input to each of the “Plan management” and  “Plan engagement” processes. Therefore there should be time spent in the development of the project charter to address each of the  knowledge areas input requirements.

You are a PM (Project Manager) in a large company which employs a PMO (Project Management Office). You are asked to prepare a document that will describe and communicate the scope and potential benefits of a certain project. You as the PM will utilize a template project charter document to prepare a project charter for the sponsor and stakeholders to review and approve to start the project.

 

Once approved the project charter will not be updated, it will be utilized as an input document for other processes to start and develop the Project Management Plan, other subsidiary project plans and other important project documents.

  1. The Develop Project Charter, once documented, is in essence the birth certificate of the project and constitutes the first document in the lifespan of the project. (MAD 10/24/2015)
  • Business documents - Business case

    The approved business case is created by the performing organization prior to the project charter.  The project manager can contribute with the sponsor and other SME’s (Subject matter experts) prior to the project. The project manager does not update or modify the Business documents since they are not project documents. The project manager may make recommendations in their development with management.

    The business case can be from any of the following reasons:

    • Market demand
    • Organizational need
    • Customer request
    • Technological advance
    • Legal requirement
    • Ecological impacts
    • Social need

    The business case can be used before project initiation and may result in a go/no-go decision for the project.

    Business case  is developed prior to the project being developed.

    In the case of multi phase projects, the business case is reviewed at every phase review to ensure that the project is on track to deliver the business benefits. Throughout the project life cycle, periodic review of the business case by the sponsoring organization also helps to confirm that the project is still aligned with the business case. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that the project effectively and efficiently meets the goals of the organization and those requirements of a broad set of stakeholders, as defined in the business case

  • Agreements

    The input “agreements” in the project charter is the agreement between the sponsor or customer that includes all the detail to be successful with the project. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, and any other requirements should be stated.

    Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

    Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

    You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

    Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

    There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurement’s process.

    The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

  • Enterprise environmental factors

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

    EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

    Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

     

    Organization structure

    Organization temperament

    Organization culture

    Government Regulations

    Industry Standards

    Market ever-changing conditions

    Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

    Industry Quality standards

    Organization Quality standards and controls

    Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

    You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

     

    The EEF’s that should be considered are:

    Columbian internal EEF’s

    • Environmental laws
    • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
    • Culture of the Columbian labor
    • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
    • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

    Culture of existing project staff

    Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

    As you can tell this could go on and on.

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

  • Organizational process assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

    Two Camps of OPA’s

    ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

    TWO Organizational knowledge bases

     

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

     

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

  • Project documents updates - Assumption log
  • Expert judgement
  • Pre-assignment
  • Data gathering - Focus groups

    Focus Groups are unique – They bring together a group of “prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts (SME’s)”. In other words, stakeholders with a specific knowledge, or desire. This collaboration is valuable to extract specific details for project success.

     

    A moderator could be used to lead the discussion and record the results.

    All focus groups are brought together to find answers to specific questions. This is why only people with potential answers to these questions are invited.

     

    Focus groups are a part of qualitative market research where a group of 6-10 people, usually 8, are asked to share their feedback, opinions, knowledge, and insights about technologies, products, services, marketing plans, sales strategies or any other topic.

     

    All the participants are free to convince the other participants to change their opinions and openly put their respective points forward.

     

    The mediator, in the meanwhile, would take notes and make records from this discussion.

     

    Due to the impact that this focus group can have on the result, a researcher needs to be extremely picky in the process of selecting participants for this focus group.

    Focus groups have a long history and were used during the Second World War (1939-1945) to examine the effectiveness of propaganda. Associate director sociologist Robert Merton set up focus groups at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA prior to 1976. Psychologist and marketing expert Ernest Dichter coined the term “focus group” itself before his death in 1991.

  • Data gathering - Brainstorming
  • Data gathering - Interviews
  • Interpersonal and team skills - Meeting management
  • Interpersonal and team skills - Conflict management
  • Interpersonal and team skills - Facilitation
  • Meetings
  • Project charter

    The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

    Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

    Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

    Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

    Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

    Should we do this project?

    Can we meet the target metrics for success?

    The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

    Project purpose

    Aspects of project performance:

    Scope: boundaries, exclusions

    Schedule: best estimate

    Budget: best estimate

    Quality requirements

    Resource requirements

    Communication requirements

    Risks identified

    Procurement necessities

    Stakeholder listing

    This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

  • Project documents - Assumption log

*The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

2 Develop Project Management Plan

The “Project Management Plan” contains all the plans and baselines literally. This feature of the project management plan means that all the requirements for execution, monitoring and controlling and closing are spelled out in detail in this Record or File. The project management plan is not a project document by definition, Project Records and anything that is not called a plan or baseline.

The Project Management Plan is Progressively Elaborated or iteratively developed during the project. The term to use is “Progressively Elaborated”. There are nineteen (19) outputs of “Project Management Plan Updates”, the use of this output is to update any of the plans or baselines with more definitive information. Project Management Plan Updates is not used for project Changes. All changes use the output, “Change Request”. Change Requests are then processed through “Perform Integrated Change Control” process.

The Project Management Plan is a voluminous file.  Examples on the internet are available and the size and scope is determined by the size and scope of the project itself.

There are many companies that continue to develop the project charter and utilize the project charter as the project management plan. For smaller projects this may serve the needs of the organization. Any project of size and complexity would be served better by following all the processes in the PMP process chart.

  • Project charter

    The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

    Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

    Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

    Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

    Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

    Should we do this project?

    Can we meet the target metrics for success?

    The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

    Project purpose

    Aspects of project performance:

    Scope: boundaries, exclusions

    Schedule: best estimate

    Budget: best estimate

    Quality requirements

    Resource requirements

    Communication requirements

    Risks identified

    Procurement necessities

    Stakeholder listing

    This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

  • Outputs from other processes
  • Enterprise environmental factors

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

    EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

    Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

     

    Organization structure

    Organization temperament

    Organization culture

    Government Regulations

    Industry Standards

    Market ever-changing conditions

    Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

    Industry Quality standards

    Organization Quality standards and controls

    Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

    You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

     

    The EEF’s that should be considered are:

    Columbian internal EEF’s

    • Environmental laws
    • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
    • Culture of the Columbian labor
    • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
    • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

    Culture of existing project staff

    Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

    As you can tell this could go on and on.

    EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

  • Organizational process assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

    Two Camps of OPA’s

    ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

    TWO Organizational knowledge bases

     

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

     

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

  • Project management plan updates - Any component
  • Project management plan updates - Performance measurement baseline
  • Expert judgement
  • Data gathering - Focus groups

    Focus Groups are unique – They bring together a group of “prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts (SME’s)”. In other words, stakeholders with a specific knowledge, or desire. This collaboration is valuable to extract specific details for project success.

     

    A moderator could be used to lead the discussion and record the results.

    All focus groups are brought together to find answers to specific questions. This is why only people with potential answers to these questions are invited.

     

    Focus groups are a part of qualitative market research where a group of 6-10 people, usually 8, are asked to share their feedback, opinions, knowledge, and insights about technologies, products, services, marketing plans, sales strategies or any other topic.

     

    All the participants are free to convince the other participants to change their opinions and openly put their respective points forward.

     

    The mediator, in the meanwhile, would take notes and make records from this discussion.

     

    Due to the impact that this focus group can have on the result, a researcher needs to be extremely picky in the process of selecting participants for this focus group.

    Focus groups have a long history and were used during the Second World War (1939-1945) to examine the effectiveness of propaganda. Associate director sociologist Robert Merton set up focus groups at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA prior to 1976. Psychologist and marketing expert Ernest Dichter coined the term “focus group” itself before his death in 1991.

  • Data gathering - Checklists
  • Data gathering - Brainstorming
  • Data gathering - Interviews
  • Interpersonal and team skills - Meeting management
  • Interpersonal and team skills - Conflict management
  • Interpersonal and team skills - Facilitation
  • Meetings
  • Project management plan - Project management plan
  • Project management plan - Any component
  • Project management plan - All components
  • Project management plan - Change management plan

    A change management plan defines activities and roles to manage and control change during the execute and control stage of the project. Change is measured against the project baseline, which is a detailed description of the project’s scope, budget, schedule, and plans to manage quality, risk, issues, and change. During the execute and control stage, changes may require one or more revised project baselines to be issued.

    Rationale/Purpose

    Change can occur throughout the project life cycle. A Change Management Plan helps control the effect of changes during the execute and control stage, thereby avoiding overruns in cost and schedule, incoherent scope, poor quality, etc. The Change Management Plan is critical to the success of the project. There should be no change without evaluation and approval.

    Who is involved

    Project Team
    Project Manager
    Project Sponsor
    Customer
    Project Stakeholders

    Result
    Change Management Plan component of the Project Plan

    Change Management Plan

    Project Name:

     

    TEMPLATE

     Title: Prepared By:

    Version No:

    Document Change Control

     

    The following is the document control for revisions to this document.

    Version Number Date of Issue Author(s) Brief Description of Change

     

     

     

    Definition

     

    The following are definitions of terms, abbreviations and acronyms used in this document.

     

    Term Definition

     

    Table Of Contents

    1. Project constraints…………………………………………………………………………… 1
    2. Change management guidelines and purview…………………………… 1
    3. Estimate of change volume………………………………………………………………. 1
    4. Roles and responsibilities……………………………………………………………….. 1
    5. The change management process………………………………………………….. 2
    6. Tools………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
    7. Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3



    1. Project constraints

     

     

    We acknowledge the following project constraints:

     

    [Identify the driving constraints for the project. These are the assumptions against which change is managed.  Examples: 

    • fixed budget set at $_______
    • hard deadline
    • minimum quality threshold.]

     

    2. Change management guidelines and purview.

     

     

    The following items will be subject to change management.

    [Specific list of primary deliverables and the documents that describe them, and secondary deliverables that will fall under change management.  Examples:] 

     

    Primary deliverables

    • Software application as described in these specifications documents
    • Hardware deployment as described in these bill of materials and configuration plan documents and machine room blueprint

     

    Secondary deliverables

    • Project WBS
    • Project budgetary and scheduling documents
    • Project quality control planning document
    • Project reporting requirements

     

    The project team has latitude [is strictly bound] to interpret requirements in the following areas:

    [Specific list of areas in the product specification or requirements where the project team is either strictly bound by the documents or has the prerogative to interpret the requirements more loosely.] 

     

     

    3. Estimate of change volume

     

     

    The budgetary impact of change in this project is expected to fall within the range of [lower] to [higher] dollars.  We assume the number of change requests will be roughly ____.  We estimate change evaluation and management to require _____ hours.

     

    4. Roles and responsibilities

     

     

    [For evaluators, note any special expertise that may be required given the sorts of changes you can anticipate.  This sets the stage for ensuring access to that expertise.] 

     

    The change manager is responsible to

    • receive and log change requests
    • monitor project and recognize changes that result from realized risks and issues
    • track and facilitate the timely evaluation of change requests
    • track and facilitate timely decisions on changes
    • incorporate changes into the appropriate project documents
    • communicate changes to the project team and others as the communication plan below dictates
    • report change management activity as outlined in the reporting section below
    • analyze patterns in change requests to identify underlying systemic causes
    • ensure that the evaluation team is appropriately staffed to meet the volume and expertise requirements of the change queue

     

    The change requestor, who is any key stakeholder, may submit project change requests following the submittal process indicated below.

     

    The lead change evaluator is charged to

    • organize and perform the timely and adequate evaluation of changes in terms of their impacts on project deliverables and constraints
    • outline options and recommend courses of action and priorities for changes
    • ensure that appropriate expertise is brought to bear in the evaluation of all changes

     

    Change evaluators work under the direction of the lead evaluator to

    • apply their particular expertise and judgment to the evaluation of changes assigned to them
    • develop options and recommend courses of action for these changes

     

    The change decision maker is responsible to

    • approve, reject, or park changes
    • request further evaluation if insufficient information is available to support the decision

     

    5. The change management process

     

     

    For each change the following process will be followed.  Note that logging occurs at various points in the process, e.g. after evaluation and after the decision, not shown in this diagram.

     

     

     

    5.1 Submittal and Logging: Change requests will be submitted using the change request form referenced below.  A change resulting from a realized risk or issue will be documented through a change request form.  The change manager will scan risks and issues for likely changes every ____ [days, weeks].  The change manager will identify checkpoints in the WBS critical path at which to survey the project team, customer, sponsor, and stakeholders for changes.  These checkpoints will be chosen with the aim of minimizing the impact of changes on the project constraints.

     

    5.2 Evaluation:  The lead change evaluator will note any special expertise required to effectively evaluate a change request.

     

    [Note any likely areas of expertise required and identify the resources you will use to secure the expertise.  It would be prudent before the onset of the execute and control stage to have verified the availability of these resources.  Example: your project involves the development of licenses for which legal advice is required.  You will obtain that advice from whom?]

     

    Unless otherwise noted, change requests will be evaluated within ____ days of submission to the evaluators.

     

    5.3 Decision:  Unless otherwise noted, changes will be approved, rejected, or parked within _____ days of submission to the change decision maker.  The decision maker may also request further evaluation.

     

    5.4 Integration:  The change manager will update project documentation as changes are approved.  All changes will be recorded in the document change control block.  Project drawings, diagrams, and specifications will be reissued when accumulated change notations render the documents confusing, ambiguous, or otherwise unclear.  Project documentation will be posted to this site [http://myproject.doit.wisc.edu].  A running summary of changes will be posted to this page [http://myproject.doit.wisc.edu/approved_changes/].

     

    5.5 Communication:  The project team and sponsor will be notified of changes as they are approved through email. A summary of recent changes will be reviewed in weekly team meetings.  A change summary will be published to stakeholders and customers with the [note reporting period, e.g. monthly] project status report.

    6. Tools

    Change request form

    See attached change request template.

    Change log

    See attached change log template.

     

     

    7. Appendices

     

    [Add additional information as needed.]

    This plan will identify the responsible person or team that will be reviewing and approving all change requests.

  • Project management plan - Configuration management plan

    This Configuration Management (CM) Plan establishes the technical and administrative direction and surveillance for the management of configuration items (i.e., software, hardware, and documentation) associated with the <Project Name (Acronym)> that are to be placed under configuration control.  This document defines the project’s structure and methods for:

    • Identifying, defining, and baselining configuration items (CIs);
    • Controlling modifications and releases of CIs;
    • Reporting and recording status of CIs and any requested modifications;
    • Ensuring completeness, consistency, and correctness of CIs; and
    • Controlling storage, handling, and delivery of CIs.

    As the project matures, appropriate sections of this plan will require periodic updating.

    Examples of “Configuration Management Plans” are readily available on the internet. Just Google the plan. These plans are detailed and should be completed for large projects that will require a long schedule. Simple projects may not require a configuration management plan.

    The configuration management plan should not be confused with the change management plan. The configuration management plan details how the project will maintain the integrity of the scope of the deliverable. The change management plan details how changes will be captured, approved, implemented, and verified after implementation.

  • Project management plan - Development approach
  • Project management plan - Project life cycle description
  • Project management plan - Performance measurement baseline

*The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.

  • 3 Direct & Manage Project Work

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of ALL project physical work. This process includes all the work of the processes of the Execute Process Group.

     

    The purpose of this process is to produce the deliverable as outlined in the Project Management Plan. One of the outputs of this process is indeed the “Deliverable“. All the work on the deliverable is done in this process, all other processes in the execute process group, support this process.

     

    A second very important output here is “Work Performance Data“. All the data collected throughout the execution is contained in this output. This output becomes the input to Nine (9) other processes. All the processes in Monitoring and Controlling except those in the Integration Knowledge area.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of the Project Management Plan.

     

    Execution means the work on the deliverable. All the physical work is done here. Planning and Monitoring and Controlling is done in other process groups.

    Direct & Manage Project Work is the only process where the deliverable is produced. All the work is done in execution. All approved change requests are implemented and completed in this process.

    • Approved change requests
    • Project management plan - Any component
    • Project documents - Change log
    • Project documents - Milestone list
    • Project documents - Project communications
    • Project documents - Project schedule
    • Project documents - Requirements traceability matrix
    • Project documents - Risk register
    • Project documents - Risk report
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Issue log
    • Deliverables

      The Outcome of a project. The deliverable is what the customer wants from you, the project manager. At the beginning of a project. The Sponsor and or the project manager must articulate what the customer wants? This information is listed in the project charter:

      1. Scope
      2. Schedule
      3. Budget
      4. Quality requirements
      5. Resource requirements
      6. Communication requirements
      7. Risks (known at the time)
      8. Procurement requirements (known at the time)
      9. Stakeholders

      As you can see, the project charter touches on all aspects  of a project.  The metrics of success are also articulated in the project charter.

      Once the project charter is approved by the sponsor and the project manger. The project manager knows the deliverable he needs to deliver.

      A deliverable of a project to build a house – House

      A deliverable of a project to build a website – Website

      A deliverable to market a product – A marketing program

      The overriding definition of the deliverable of a project is a combination of the customers and users desires articulated so that all other stakeholders can understand how to accomplish a positive and successful project.

    • Work performance data
    • Project documents - Issue log
    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Project management plan updates - Any component
    • Project documents updates - Activity list
    • Project documents updates - Assumption log
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register
    • Project documents updates - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents updates - Risk register
    • Project documents updates - Stakeholder register
    • Organizational process assets updates

    *The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.

  • 4 Manage Project Knowledge

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    • Deliverables

      The Outcome of a project. The deliverable is what the customer wants from you, the project manager. At the beginning of a project. The Sponsor and or the project manager must articulate what the customer wants? This information is listed in the project charter:

      1. Scope
      2. Schedule
      3. Budget
      4. Quality requirements
      5. Resource requirements
      6. Communication requirements
      7. Risks (known at the time)
      8. Procurement requirements (known at the time)
      9. Stakeholders

      As you can see, the project charter touches on all aspects  of a project.  The metrics of success are also articulated in the project charter.

      Once the project charter is approved by the sponsor and the project manger. The project manager knows the deliverable he needs to deliver.

      A deliverable of a project to build a house – House

      A deliverable of a project to build a website – Website

      A deliverable to market a product – A marketing program

      The overriding definition of the deliverable of a project is a combination of the customers and users desires articulated so that all other stakeholders can understand how to accomplish a positive and successful project.

    • Project management plan - All components
    • Project documents - Project team assignments
    • Project documents - Resource breakdown structure
    • Project documents - Stakeholder register
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register

    The process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project objectives and contribute to organizational learning.

  • 5 Monitor & Control Project Work

    Monitoring and Controlling the project is critical to project success.  In this process we track, review, and report the progress. We need to be sensitive to the life-cycle of the project.

     

    Collection and Reporting are the two main functions of this process. As reflected by the main output of “Work Performance Reports“.

    The project manager is responsible for the collection and reporting of the project parameters. Tracking and evaluating the current state of the project and reporting the same to stakeholders is critical to project success.

    Within this process we can act on items that are discovered that need to be changed, by using a change request.

     

    But the biggest value of this process is to communicate the project life-cycle metrics to the team and stakeholders in the other processes, that can act on their critical areas of expertise, This is done through the “Work Performance Reports”.

    • Work performance information
    • Agreements

      The input “agreements” in the project charter is the agreement between the sponsor or customer that includes all the detail to be successful with the project. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, and any other requirements should be stated.

      Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

      Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

      You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

      Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

      There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurement’s process.

      The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

    • Project management plan - Any component
    • Project documents - Schedule forecasts
    • Project documents - Cost forecasts
    • Project documents - Basis of estimates
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Project documents - Issue log
    • Project documents - Milestone list
    • Project documents - Quality reports
    • Project documents - Risk register
    • Project documents - Risk report
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Work performance reports

      Work performance reports are generated to communicate the metrics of the project. These metrics are for each of the knowledge areas or disciplines of project management: Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Communication, Risks, Procurement, and Stakeholders.

       

      These metrics or reports are Inputs to 4 processes:

      1. Perform Integrated Change Control
        1. Were the approved change requests implemented properly.
      2. Manage Team
        1. The reports are communicated to team members.
      3. Manage Communications
        1. Stakeholders are given project metrics as appropriate.
      4. Monitor Risks
        1. Do any metrics suggest a required risk response.

      Each of these processes uses the reports to confirm completion or exception to project metrics.

    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Project management plan updates - Any component
    • Project documents updates - Schedule forecasts
    • Project documents updates - Cost forecasts
    • Project documents updates - Issue log
    • Project documents updates - Risk register
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register

    *The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.

  • 6 Perform Integrated Change Control

    Perform integrated change control is a very active process in project management. If the 47 processes were a river the “Perform Integrated Change Control” process would be a whirlpool. All material changes to a project flow through this process.

    Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests: approving changes and managing changes to deliverable’s, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan: and communicating their disposition.

    Material changes to:

    Deliverables

    Organizational Process Assets

    Project Management Plan

    Project Documents

    Discovery of a mistake in the scope of the project was discovered and rectification is required. A change request would be completed and sent to the CCB within the process (Perform integrated change control).

    Changes may be requested by any stakeholder, but changes should be placed on a change request to be formally input into the perform integrated change control process. These procedures should be followed by all stakeholders and should be performed throughout the project life cycle.

    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Work performance reports

      Work performance reports are generated to communicate the metrics of the project. These metrics are for each of the knowledge areas or disciplines of project management: Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Communication, Risks, Procurement, and Stakeholders.

       

      These metrics or reports are Inputs to 4 processes:

      1. Perform Integrated Change Control
        1. Were the approved change requests implemented properly.
      2. Manage Team
        1. The reports are communicated to team members.
      3. Manage Communications
        1. Stakeholders are given project metrics as appropriate.
      4. Monitor Risks
        1. Do any metrics suggest a required risk response.

      Each of these processes uses the reports to confirm completion or exception to project metrics.

    • Project management plan - Change management plan

      A change management plan defines activities and roles to manage and control change during the execute and control stage of the project. Change is measured against the project baseline, which is a detailed description of the project’s scope, budget, schedule, and plans to manage quality, risk, issues, and change. During the execute and control stage, changes may require one or more revised project baselines to be issued.

      Rationale/Purpose

      Change can occur throughout the project life cycle. A Change Management Plan helps control the effect of changes during the execute and control stage, thereby avoiding overruns in cost and schedule, incoherent scope, poor quality, etc. The Change Management Plan is critical to the success of the project. There should be no change without evaluation and approval.

      Who is involved

      Project Team
      Project Manager
      Project Sponsor
      Customer
      Project Stakeholders

      Result
      Change Management Plan component of the Project Plan

      Change Management Plan

      Project Name:

       

      TEMPLATE

       Title: Prepared By:

      Version No:

      Document Change Control

       

      The following is the document control for revisions to this document.

      Version Number Date of Issue Author(s) Brief Description of Change

       

       

       

      Definition

       

      The following are definitions of terms, abbreviations and acronyms used in this document.

       

      Term Definition

       

      Table Of Contents

      1. Project constraints…………………………………………………………………………… 1
      2. Change management guidelines and purview…………………………… 1
      3. Estimate of change volume………………………………………………………………. 1
      4. Roles and responsibilities……………………………………………………………….. 1
      5. The change management process………………………………………………….. 2
      6. Tools………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
      7. Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3



      1. Project constraints

       

       

      We acknowledge the following project constraints:

       

      [Identify the driving constraints for the project. These are the assumptions against which change is managed.  Examples: 

      • fixed budget set at $_______
      • hard deadline
      • minimum quality threshold.]

       

      2. Change management guidelines and purview.

       

       

      The following items will be subject to change management.

      [Specific list of primary deliverables and the documents that describe them, and secondary deliverables that will fall under change management.  Examples:] 

       

      Primary deliverables

      • Software application as described in these specifications documents
      • Hardware deployment as described in these bill of materials and configuration plan documents and machine room blueprint

       

      Secondary deliverables

      • Project WBS
      • Project budgetary and scheduling documents
      • Project quality control planning document
      • Project reporting requirements

       

      The project team has latitude [is strictly bound] to interpret requirements in the following areas:

      [Specific list of areas in the product specification or requirements where the project team is either strictly bound by the documents or has the prerogative to interpret the requirements more loosely.] 

       

       

      3. Estimate of change volume

       

       

      The budgetary impact of change in this project is expected to fall within the range of [lower] to [higher] dollars.  We assume the number of change requests will be roughly ____.  We estimate change evaluation and management to require _____ hours.

       

      4. Roles and responsibilities

       

       

      [For evaluators, note any special expertise that may be required given the sorts of changes you can anticipate.  This sets the stage for ensuring access to that expertise.] 

       

      The change manager is responsible to

      • receive and log change requests
      • monitor project and recognize changes that result from realized risks and issues
      • track and facilitate the timely evaluation of change requests
      • track and facilitate timely decisions on changes
      • incorporate changes into the appropriate project documents
      • communicate changes to the project team and others as the communication plan below dictates
      • report change management activity as outlined in the reporting section below
      • analyze patterns in change requests to identify underlying systemic causes
      • ensure that the evaluation team is appropriately staffed to meet the volume and expertise requirements of the change queue

       

      The change requestor, who is any key stakeholder, may submit project change requests following the submittal process indicated below.

       

      The lead change evaluator is charged to

      • organize and perform the timely and adequate evaluation of changes in terms of their impacts on project deliverables and constraints
      • outline options and recommend courses of action and priorities for changes
      • ensure that appropriate expertise is brought to bear in the evaluation of all changes

       

      Change evaluators work under the direction of the lead evaluator to

      • apply their particular expertise and judgment to the evaluation of changes assigned to them
      • develop options and recommend courses of action for these changes

       

      The change decision maker is responsible to

      • approve, reject, or park changes
      • request further evaluation if insufficient information is available to support the decision

       

      5. The change management process

       

       

      For each change the following process will be followed.  Note that logging occurs at various points in the process, e.g. after evaluation and after the decision, not shown in this diagram.

       

       

       

      5.1 Submittal and Logging: Change requests will be submitted using the change request form referenced below.  A change resulting from a realized risk or issue will be documented through a change request form.  The change manager will scan risks and issues for likely changes every ____ [days, weeks].  The change manager will identify checkpoints in the WBS critical path at which to survey the project team, customer, sponsor, and stakeholders for changes.  These checkpoints will be chosen with the aim of minimizing the impact of changes on the project constraints.

       

      5.2 Evaluation:  The lead change evaluator will note any special expertise required to effectively evaluate a change request.

       

      [Note any likely areas of expertise required and identify the resources you will use to secure the expertise.  It would be prudent before the onset of the execute and control stage to have verified the availability of these resources.  Example: your project involves the development of licenses for which legal advice is required.  You will obtain that advice from whom?]

       

      Unless otherwise noted, change requests will be evaluated within ____ days of submission to the evaluators.

       

      5.3 Decision:  Unless otherwise noted, changes will be approved, rejected, or parked within _____ days of submission to the change decision maker.  The decision maker may also request further evaluation.

       

      5.4 Integration:  The change manager will update project documentation as changes are approved.  All changes will be recorded in the document change control block.  Project drawings, diagrams, and specifications will be reissued when accumulated change notations render the documents confusing, ambiguous, or otherwise unclear.  Project documentation will be posted to this site [http://myproject.doit.wisc.edu].  A running summary of changes will be posted to this page [http://myproject.doit.wisc.edu/approved_changes/].

       

      5.5 Communication:  The project team and sponsor will be notified of changes as they are approved through email. A summary of recent changes will be reviewed in weekly team meetings.  A change summary will be published to stakeholders and customers with the [note reporting period, e.g. monthly] project status report.

      6. Tools

      Change request form

      See attached change request template.

      Change log

      See attached change log template.

       

       

      7. Appendices

       

      [Add additional information as needed.]

      This plan will identify the responsible person or team that will be reviewing and approving all change requests.

    • Project management plan - Configuration management plan

      This Configuration Management (CM) Plan establishes the technical and administrative direction and surveillance for the management of configuration items (i.e., software, hardware, and documentation) associated with the <Project Name (Acronym)> that are to be placed under configuration control.  This document defines the project’s structure and methods for:

      • Identifying, defining, and baselining configuration items (CIs);
      • Controlling modifications and releases of CIs;
      • Reporting and recording status of CIs and any requested modifications;
      • Ensuring completeness, consistency, and correctness of CIs; and
      • Controlling storage, handling, and delivery of CIs.

      As the project matures, appropriate sections of this plan will require periodic updating.

      Examples of “Configuration Management Plans” are readily available on the internet. Just Google the plan. These plans are detailed and should be completed for large projects that will require a long schedule. Simple projects may not require a configuration management plan.

      The configuration management plan should not be confused with the change management plan. The configuration management plan details how the project will maintain the integrity of the scope of the deliverable. The change management plan details how changes will be captured, approved, implemented, and verified after implementation.

    • Project management plan - Scope baseline
    • Project management plan - Schedule baseline
    • Project management plan - Cost baseline
    • Project documents - Basis of estimates
    • Project documents - Requirements traceability matrix
    • Project documents - Risk report
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Change log

    *The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition.

7 Close Project or Phase

The project manager must close all lose ends before he formally closes a project. The filing of the project files or documents should only be done when all these files have been properly reviewed and approved.

 

The deliverable should be delivered per the Project Management Plan, the details of the delivery should be spelled out. An easy hand-off, or a complex transition may be required. Success can be determined by this transition.

 

The key benefit of closing properly is to leave a trail of the project activities that can be followed by subsequent projects. Lessons learned is a valuable asset to the company. If a similar project occurs then these lessons learned will be critical to understanding the scope, schedule, cost, not to mention the other plans in all the knowledge areas.

The project just completed the “Validate Scope” process. The customer was pleased with the results and is pushing for delivery. Upon reviewing the delivery requirements in the project management plan it is noted that a two week testing period before delivery is required, to verify all the features of the deliverable are working.

 

The project manager will follow the plan as required. The customer will be advised and if any change is required it will be discussed and a change request will be completed and sent through “Perform Integrated Change Control”.

 

The change can be output in several processes.

This is one of the most important processes of a project. Why? In this process we leave a trail of breadcrumbs to the whole project. These closed file documents are the asset of the performing organization. These files are the only remnants of the project. They have incredible value.

 

Never treat this process lightly.

  • Accepted deliverables

    in dd

    in e

    in if

  • Agreements

    The input “agreements” in the project charter is the agreement between the sponsor or customer that includes all the detail to be successful with the project. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, and any other requirements should be stated.

    Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

    Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

    You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

    Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

    There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurement’s process.

    The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

  • Project charter

    The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

    Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

    Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

    Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

    Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

    Should we do this project?

    Can we meet the target metrics for success?

    The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

    Project purpose

    Aspects of project performance:

    Scope: boundaries, exclusions

    Schedule: best estimate

    Budget: best estimate

    Quality requirements

    Resource requirements

    Communication requirements

    Risks identified

    Procurement necessities

    Stakeholder listing

    This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

  • Procurement documentation 4
  • Project management plan - All components
  • Business documents - Business case

    The approved business case is created by the performing organization prior to the project charter.  The project manager can contribute with the sponsor and other SME’s (Subject matter experts) prior to the project. The project manager does not update or modify the Business documents since they are not project documents. The project manager may make recommendations in their development with management.

    The business case can be from any of the following reasons:

    • Market demand
    • Organizational need
    • Customer request
    • Technological advance
    • Legal requirement
    • Ecological impacts
    • Social need

    The business case can be used before project initiation and may result in a go/no-go decision for the project.

    Business case  is developed prior to the project being developed.

    In the case of multi phase projects, the business case is reviewed at every phase review to ensure that the project is on track to deliver the business benefits. Throughout the project life cycle, periodic review of the business case by the sponsoring organization also helps to confirm that the project is still aligned with the business case. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that the project effectively and efficiently meets the goals of the organization and those requirements of a broad set of stakeholders, as defined in the business case

  • Business documents - Benefits management plan

    The benefits management plan explains the requirements of the organization to create a project. What key benefits and or outcomes are expected from projects? The following could be articulated in the benefits management plan:

    • Targeted benefits
    • Strategic alignment
    • Timetable for benefits realization
    • Benefits owner
    • Metric of success
    • Assumptions inherent
    • Risks

    This plan, although created prior to the project is updated with current project information. The project should follow the measurement system of the performing organization.

     

    Developing the Benefits management plan make use of the data and information documented in the Business case and needs assessment.

    The sponsor, and stakeholders in the performing organization need to know how the chosen project will deliver to meet the requirements of the performing organization. Therefore the project manager and or his designee needs to articulate how the project will deliver the return on investment required.

  • Project documents - Quality control measurements
  • Project documents - Quality reports
  • Project documents - Issue log
  • Project documents - Assumption log
  • Project documents - Basis of estimates
  • Project documents - Change log
  • Project documents - Milestone list
  • Project documents - Project communications
  • Project documents - Requirements documentation
  • Project documents - Risk register
  • Project documents - Risk report
  • Project documents - Lessons learned register
  • Organizational process assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

    Two Camps of OPA’s

    ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

    TWO Organizational knowledge bases

     

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

     

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

  • Expert judgement
  • Data analysis - Regression analysis

    Regression analysis is used to understand which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable, and to explore the forms of these relationships. In restricted circumstances regression analysis cam be used to infer causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables.

     

    At the end of a project, it is valuable to determine which project variables or factors contributed to project success or failure. These discoveries should be documented for future use in the Lessons Learned register.

     

    The regression analysis is a technique that involves examining the series of input variables in relations to the corresponding output results. This particular project management technique is used in establishing the statistical relationship between two variables. It is used to determine whether one variable, the independent variable, is used to predict the dependent variable.

    In regression analysis, the stronger the relationship is between the two variables, the greater the accuracy in predicting their relationship. Project managers can easily see the relationship between two variables by using a simple linear formula and plotting the results on a chart.

    Using this tool provides project managers a clearer understanding on the relationship of two things. Used together with the other analytical tools, they can use information for the better decision-making.

    A scatter diagram is an example of a “Regression Analysis”. An analysis of two variables and their relationship is a regression analysis.

  • Data analysis - Variance analysis
  • Data analysis - Trend analysis
  • Data analysis - Document analysis
  • Meetings

*The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.

2 Scope

*Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.

 
  • 1 Plan Scope Management

    The creation of a scope management plan is to provide guidance and direction on how the scope will be managed during the project.

    The scope management plan is a subsidiary to the project management plan.

     

    The project manager has seen alternatives to the project that have features different to the current project, He decides he wants to investigate the current scope, He first reviews the scope management plan for direction in his investigation.

    Scope must be determined before any schedule or budget can be completed. Developing a scope statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary are critical to project success.

    • Project charter

      The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

      Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

      Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

      Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

      Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

      Should we do this project?

      Can we meet the target metrics for success?

      The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

      Project purpose

      Aspects of project performance:

      Scope: boundaries, exclusions

      Schedule: best estimate

      Budget: best estimate

      Quality requirements

      Resource requirements

      Communication requirements

      Risks identified

      Procurement necessities

      Stakeholder listing

      This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

    • Project management plan - Project life cycle description
    • Project management plan - Development approach
    • Project management plan - Quality management plan
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project management plan updates - Scope management plan
    • Project management plan updates - Requirements management plan

    *The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.

  • 2 Collect Requirements

    Collect requirements is the process of collecting and documenting ALL stakeholder requirements. It is important to speak to all stakeholders when looking for these requirements. Even try to find things that the customer does not know he wants. Also look for alternatives to the requirements as this will also expose possible requirements.

    Knowing all the requirements will assist in managing the project scope. These requirements will also help with scheduling and costing.

    Requirements can be broken down into categories, to mention a few:

    • Business requirements
    • Stakeholder requirements
    • Solution requirements
    • Part to Part requirements
    • Transition requirements
    • Special skill requirements
    • Quality requirements

    The project manager is unfamiliar with the customer, so he has a meeting with the prior PM who has had dealing with the customer to determine any special needs the customer has required in the past. He also reviews the lessons learned to determine special circumstances in the last project with this customer.

    Collect Requirements is the same as Voice of the Customer in Six Sigma or  when doing the tool “Quality Function Deployment”.

     

    The Industry and product must be taken into consideration when collecting requirements as there may be SME’s required.

    • Project charter

      The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

      Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

      Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

      Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

      Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

      Should we do this project?

      Can we meet the target metrics for success?

      The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

      Project purpose

      Aspects of project performance:

      Scope: boundaries, exclusions

      Schedule: best estimate

      Budget: best estimate

      Quality requirements

      Resource requirements

      Communication requirements

      Risks identified

      Procurement necessities

      Stakeholder listing

      This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

    • Agreements

      The input “agreements” in the project charter is the agreement between the sponsor or customer that includes all the detail to be successful with the project. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, and any other requirements should be stated.

      Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

      Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

      You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

      Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

      There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurement’s process.

      The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

    • Project management plan - Scope management plan
    • Project management plan - Requirements management plan
    • Project management plan - Stakeholder engagement plan
    • Project documents - Stakeholder register
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Business documents - Business case

      The approved business case is created by the performing organization prior to the project charter.  The project manager can contribute with the sponsor and other SME’s (Subject matter experts) prior to the project. The project manager does not update or modify the Business documents since they are not project documents. The project manager may make recommendations in their development with management.

      The business case can be from any of the following reasons:

      • Market demand
      • Organizational need
      • Customer request
      • Technological advance
      • Legal requirement
      • Ecological impacts
      • Social need

      The business case can be used before project initiation and may result in a go/no-go decision for the project.

      Business case  is developed prior to the project being developed.

      In the case of multi phase projects, the business case is reviewed at every phase review to ensure that the project is on track to deliver the business benefits. Throughout the project life cycle, periodic review of the business case by the sponsoring organization also helps to confirm that the project is still aligned with the business case. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that the project effectively and efficiently meets the goals of the organization and those requirements of a broad set of stakeholders, as defined in the business case

    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents updates - Requirements traceability matrix
    • Expert judgement
    • Context diagram

      Context diagrams are visual tools that depict the scope of the product showing the business system and how it relates and interacts with the other systems as well. It is a good example of a project management scope model. It shows the inputs to the system, the main players that provide the input as well as the output of the system and the actors receiving them.

      Simply put, it shows the name of the product or system in a circle.  Outside it is the entities that are involved with the product or system. These include the other business systems, organizations, actors and user classes. Context diagrams also show arrows which indicate the relationship between the system and the external entities.

      It helps project managers understand the flow of the project’s system as it depicts the scope in abstraction. Since the project scope is indicated as an abstraction, it does not reveal the functionality and architecture of the system. It also does not identify the features. It simply serves as a tool to aid stakeholders to communicate about the system and what lies outside its boundaries.

    • Prototypes
    • Data gathering - Focus groups

      Focus Groups are unique – They bring together a group of “prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts (SME’s)”. In other words, stakeholders with a specific knowledge, or desire. This collaboration is valuable to extract specific details for project success.

       

      A moderator could be used to lead the discussion and record the results.

      All focus groups are brought together to find answers to specific questions. This is why only people with potential answers to these questions are invited.

       

      Focus groups are a part of qualitative market research where a group of 6-10 people, usually 8, are asked to share their feedback, opinions, knowledge, and insights about technologies, products, services, marketing plans, sales strategies or any other topic.

       

      All the participants are free to convince the other participants to change their opinions and openly put their respective points forward.

       

      The mediator, in the meanwhile, would take notes and make records from this discussion.

       

      Due to the impact that this focus group can have on the result, a researcher needs to be extremely picky in the process of selecting participants for this focus group.

      Focus groups have a long history and were used during the Second World War (1939-1945) to examine the effectiveness of propaganda. Associate director sociologist Robert Merton set up focus groups at the Bureau of Applied Social Research in the USA prior to 1976. Psychologist and marketing expert Ernest Dichter coined the term “focus group” itself before his death in 1991.

    • Data gathering - Benchmarking
    • Data gathering - Questionnaires and surveys
    • Data gathering - Brainstorming
    • Data gathering - Interviews
    • Data analysis - Document analysis
    • Decision making - Voting
    • Decision making - Autocratic decision making
    • Decision making - Multicriteria decision analysis
    • Data representation - Affinity diagrams
    • Data representation - Mind mapping
    • Interpersonal and team skills - Nominal group technique
    • Interpersonal and team skills - Observation and conversation
    • Interpersonal and team skills - Facilitation

    *The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.

  • 3 Define Scope
    • Project charter

      The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

      Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

      Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

      Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

      Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

      Should we do this project?

      Can we meet the target metrics for success?

      The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

      Project purpose

      Aspects of project performance:

      Scope: boundaries, exclusions

      Schedule: best estimate

      Budget: best estimate

      Quality requirements

      Resource requirements

      Communication requirements

      Risks identified

      Procurement necessities

      Stakeholder listing

      This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

    • Project management plan - Scope management plan
    • Project documents - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Project documents - Risk register
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    *The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.

  • 4 Create WBS
    • Project management plan - Scope management plan
    • Project documents - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents - Project scope statement
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project management plan updates - Scope baseline

    *The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

 
  • 5 Validate Scope
    • Work performance information
    • Accepted deliverables

      in dd

      in e

      in if

    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Project documents updates - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents updates - Requirements traceability matrix
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register

    *The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.

  • 6 Control Scope
    • Work performance data
    • Project management plan - Scope management plan
    • Project management plan - Requirements management plan
    • Project management plan - Change management plan

      A change management plan defines activities and roles to manage and control change during the execute and control stage of the project. Change is measured against the project baseline, which is a detailed description of the project’s scope, budget, schedule, and plans to manage quality, risk, issues, and change. During the execute and control stage, changes may require one or more revised project baselines to be issued.

      Rationale/Purpose

      Change can occur throughout the project life cycle. A Change Management Plan helps control the effect of changes during the execute and control stage, thereby avoiding overruns in cost and schedule, incoherent scope, poor quality, etc. The Change Management Plan is critical to the success of the project. There should be no change without evaluation and approval.

      Who is involved

      Project Team
      Project Manager
      Project Sponsor
      Customer
      Project Stakeholders

      Result
      Change Management Plan component of the Project Plan

      Change Management Plan

      Project Name:

       

      TEMPLATE

       Title: Prepared By:

      Version No:

      Document Change Control

       

      The following is the document control for revisions to this document.

      Version Number Date of Issue Author(s) Brief Description of Change

       

       

       

      Definition

       

      The following are definitions of terms, abbreviations and acronyms used in this document.

       

      Term Definition

       

      Table Of Contents

      1. Project constraints…………………………………………………………………………… 1
      2. Change management guidelines and purview…………………………… 1
      3. Estimate of change volume………………………………………………………………. 1
      4. Roles and responsibilities……………………………………………………………….. 1
      5. The change management process………………………………………………….. 2
      6. Tools………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
      7. Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3



      1. Project constraints

       

       

      We acknowledge the following project constraints:

       

      [Identify the driving constraints for the project. These are the assumptions against which change is managed.  Examples: 

      • fixed budget set at $_______
      • hard deadline
      • minimum quality threshold.]

       

      2. Change management guidelines and purview.

       

       

      The following items will be subject to change management.

      [Specific list of primary deliverables and the documents that describe them, and secondary deliverables that will fall under change management.  Examples:] 

       

      Primary deliverables

      • Software application as described in these specifications documents
      • Hardware deployment as described in these bill of materials and configuration plan documents and machine room blueprint

       

      Secondary deliverables

      • Project WBS
      • Project budgetary and scheduling documents
      • Project quality control planning document
      • Project reporting requirements

       

      The project team has latitude [is strictly bound] to interpret requirements in the following areas:

      [Specific list of areas in the product specification or requirements where the project team is either strictly bound by the documents or has the prerogative to interpret the requirements more loosely.] 

       

       

      3. Estimate of change volume

       

       

      The budgetary impact of change in this project is expected to fall within the range of [lower] to [higher] dollars.  We assume the number of change requests will be roughly ____.  We estimate change evaluation and management to require _____ hours.

       

      4. Roles and responsibilities

       

       

      [For evaluators, note any special expertise that may be required given the sorts of changes you can anticipate.  This sets the stage for ensuring access to that expertise.] 

       

      The change manager is responsible to

      • receive and log change requests
      • monitor project and recognize changes that result from realized risks and issues
      • track and facilitate the timely evaluation of change requests
      • track and facilitate timely decisions on changes
      • incorporate changes into the appropriate project documents
      • communicate changes to the project team and others as the communication plan below dictates
      • report change management activity as outlined in the reporting section below
      • analyze patterns in change requests to identify underlying systemic causes
      • ensure that the evaluation team is appropriately staffed to meet the volume and expertise requirements of the change queue

       

      The change requestor, who is any key stakeholder, may submit project change requests following the submittal process indicated below.

       

      The lead change evaluator is charged to

      • organize and perform the timely and adequate evaluation of changes in terms of their impacts on project deliverables and constraints
      • outline options and recommend courses of action and priorities for changes
      • ensure that appropriate expertise is brought to bear in the evaluation of all changes

       

      Change evaluators work under the direction of the lead evaluator to

      • apply their particular expertise and judgment to the evaluation of changes assigned to them
      • develop options and recommend courses of action for these changes

       

      The change decision maker is responsible to

      • approve, reject, or park changes
      • request further evaluation if insufficient information is available to support the decision

       

      5. The change management process

       

       

      For each change the following process will be followed.  Note that logging occurs at various points in the process, e.g. after evaluation and after the decision, not shown in this diagram.

       

       

       

      5.1 Submittal and Logging: Change requests will be submitted using the change request form referenced below.  A change resulting from a realized risk or issue will be documented through a change request form.  The change manager will scan risks and issues for likely changes every ____ [days, weeks].  The change manager will identify checkpoints in the WBS critical path at which to survey the project team, customer, sponsor, and stakeholders for changes.  These checkpoints will be chosen with the aim of minimizing the impact of changes on the project constraints.

       

      5.2 Evaluation:  The lead change evaluator will note any special expertise required to effectively evaluate a change request.

       

      [Note any likely areas of expertise required and identify the resources you will use to secure the expertise.  It would be prudent before the onset of the execute and control stage to have verified the availability of these resources.  Example: your project involves the development of licenses for which legal advice is required.  You will obtain that advice from whom?]

       

      Unless otherwise noted, change requests will be evaluated within ____ days of submission to the evaluators.

       

      5.3 Decision:  Unless otherwise noted, changes will be approved, rejected, or parked within _____ days of submission to the change decision maker.  The decision maker may also request further evaluation.

       

      5.4 Integration:  The change manager will update project documentation as changes are approved.  All changes will be recorded in the document change control block.  Project drawings, diagrams, and specifications will be reissued when accumulated change notations render the documents confusing, ambiguous, or otherwise unclear.  Project documentation will be posted to this site [http://myproject.doit.wisc.edu].  A running summary of changes will be posted to this page [http://myproject.doit.wisc.edu/approved_changes/].

       

      5.5 Communication:  The project team and sponsor will be notified of changes as they are approved through email. A summary of recent changes will be reviewed in weekly team meetings.  A change summary will be published to stakeholders and customers with the [note reporting period, e.g. monthly] project status report.

      6. Tools

      Change request form

      See attached change request template.

      Change log

      See attached change log template.

       

       

      7. Appendices

       

      [Add additional information as needed.]

      This plan will identify the responsible person or team that will be reviewing and approving all change requests.

    • Project management plan - Configuration management plan

      This Configuration Management (CM) Plan establishes the technical and administrative direction and surveillance for the management of configuration items (i.e., software, hardware, and documentation) associated with the <Project Name (Acronym)> that are to be placed under configuration control.  This document defines the project’s structure and methods for:

      • Identifying, defining, and baselining configuration items (CIs);
      • Controlling modifications and releases of CIs;
      • Reporting and recording status of CIs and any requested modifications;
      • Ensuring completeness, consistency, and correctness of CIs; and
      • Controlling storage, handling, and delivery of CIs.

      As the project matures, appropriate sections of this plan will require periodic updating.

      Examples of “Configuration Management Plans” are readily available on the internet. Just Google the plan. These plans are detailed and should be completed for large projects that will require a long schedule. Simple projects may not require a configuration management plan.

      The configuration management plan should not be confused with the change management plan. The configuration management plan details how the project will maintain the integrity of the scope of the deliverable. The change management plan details how changes will be captured, approved, implemented, and verified after implementation.

    • Project management plan - Scope baseline
    • Project management plan - Performance measurement baseline
    • Project documents - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents - Requirements traceability matrix
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Work performance information
    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Project management plan updates - Scope management plan
    • Project management plan updates - Scope baseline
    • Project management plan updates - Schedule baseline
    • Project management plan updates - Cost baseline
    • Project management plan updates - Performance measurement baseline
    • Project documents updates - Requirements documentation
    • Project documents updates - Requirements traceability matrix
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register

    *The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.

 
3 Schedule

*Project time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

 
  • 1 Plan Schedule Management
    • Project charter

      The project charter is the first document of any project. During the develop project charter process the project manager must answer two basic questions:

      Can my project team supported by the performing organization complete this project successfully?

      Do we have the talent or skills necessary?

      Do we have the resources required? Budget, Schedule

      Do we have the will to complete the project? Risks

      Should we do this project?

      Can we meet the target metrics for success?

      The Project charter should articulate the project at a high level to communicate all aspects to the project sponsor or customer. It should include but not limited to the following items:

      Project purpose

      Aspects of project performance:

      Scope: boundaries, exclusions

      Schedule: best estimate

      Budget: best estimate

      Quality requirements

      Resource requirements

      Communication requirements

      Risks identified

      Procurement necessities

      Stakeholder listing

      This document is an input to all other knowledge areas and should contribute to each of those areas.

    • Project management plan - Scope management plan
    • Project management plan - Development approach
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project management plan updates - Schedule management plan

    *The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.

  • 2 Define Activities

     

    • Project management plan - Schedule management plan
    • Project management plan - Scope baseline
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Activity list
    • Project documents updates - Activity attributes
    • Project documents updates - Milestone list
    • Project documents - Activity list
    • Project documents - Activity attributes
    • Project documents - Milestone list
    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Project management plan updates - Schedule baseline
    • Project management plan updates - Cost baseline

    *The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

  • 3 Sequence Activities
    • Project management plan - Schedule management plan
    • Project management plan - Scope baseline
    • Project documents - Activity list
    • Project documents - Activity attributes
    • Project documents - Milestone list
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    *The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.

  • 4 Estimate Activity Durations
    • Project management plan - Schedule management plan
    • Project management plan - Scope baseline
    • Project documents - Activity list
    • Project documents - Activity attributes
    • Project documents - Milestone list
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Project documents - Project team assignments
    • Project documents - Resource requirements
    • Project documents - Resource breakdown structure
    • Project documents - Resource calendars
    • Project documents - Risk register
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Duration estimates
    • Project documents updates - Basis of estimates

    *The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

  • 5 Develop Schedule
    • Agreements

      The input “agreements” in the project charter is the agreement between the sponsor or customer that includes all the detail to be successful with the project. Scope, schedule, cost, quality, and any other requirements should be stated.

      Agreements can be either oral or written. If oral, the Project manager or sponsor should commit the agreement to writing and have the agreement signed by both parties to the agreement.

      Agreements can take different forms; Purchase Order, Memorandum, Email, whatever, what is important is to capture the intent and the detail required to definitize the new project so that a decision can be reached to move forward. If a decision is made to move forward than the detail required to complete the project charter should be available.

      You are in the business of making headphones for the music industry. You have designed and built hundreds of styles. A purchase order is issued for a particular common style but with unique colors and decals and a challenging timetable for delivery is required. The agreement for the project charter is the purchase order including all the procurement documents.

      Your production manager needs a tool designed and developed to reduce the manufacturing time. The production manager has written up a memorandum to management with his ideas; also an ROI estimate of the new tool when used in production. He has provided a drawing and specifications for the tool. If the Sponsor or project manager needs more information, a request should be made of the production manager to furnish this information. The combinations of these conversation minutes, memos and memorandum is the agreement.

      There is only one agreement output in project management ITTO’s. That is in the procurement area, and applies to Purchase orders, or purchase contracts. This output is in the execution process group in the Conduct procurement’s process.

      The input “agreement” that is attached to the project charter is also an input to the determine budget process. The agreement may give information to the accounting staff to improve the estimates or establish a budget.

    • Project management plan - Schedule management plan
    • Project management plan - Scope baseline
    • Project documents - Activity list
    • Project documents - Activity attributes
    • Project documents - Milestone list
    • Project documents - Project schedule network diagram
    • Project documents - Duration estimates
    • Project documents - Basis of estimates
    • Project documents - Resource requirements
    • Project documents - Project team assignments
    • Project documents - Resource calendars
    • Project documents - Assumption log
    • Project documents - Risk register
    • Project documents - Lessons learned register
    • Enterprise environmental factors

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are those things that are not in the Sponsors or Project Managers personal control, that effect the project, or to be more exact, the development and execution of the project.

      EEF’s can be external to the project or internal to the project.

      Listing these items could take a long time. And this list would be effected by the industry and the product. But to name a few generic EEF’s:

       

      Organization structure

      Organization temperament

      Organization culture

      Government Regulations

      Industry Standards

      Market ever-changing conditions

      Stakeholder Risk Tolerances

      Industry Quality standards

      Organization Quality standards and controls

      Organization Project Management Information Systems (PMIS)

      You run a worldwide consulting business. A large customer has given you a contract to manage the construction of a refinery in Columbia. Your team of engineers and project managers do not speak Spanish and live in three different countries. The EEF’s that must be considered are long and challenging. Your budget better include a long list of contingent reserves.

       

      The EEF’s that should be considered are:

      Columbian internal EEF’s

      • Environmental laws
      • Construction fees, and licenses, laws and standards
      • Culture of the Columbian labor
      • Attitude of the Columbian population toward refineries
      • Other unknown local impediments due to culture

      Culture of existing project staff

      Infrastructure of country surrounding building site

      As you can tell this could go on and on.

      EEF’s (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are inputs to 40 separate processes.

    • Organizational process assets

      OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

      Two Camps of OPA’s

      ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

      TWO Organizational knowledge bases

       

      Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

       

      OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

      Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

       

      Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

       

      OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    • Project documents updates - Project schedule
    • Project documents updates - Schedule data
    • Project management plan updates - Schedule baseline
    • Project management plan - Schedule baseline
    • Project documents - Project schedule
    • Project documents - Schedule data
    • Project documents - Project calendars
    • Change requests

      Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

       

      The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

       

      If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

      Standard Change Request Template:

      Change Request
      Project: Date:
      Change Requestor: Change No:
      Change Category (Check all that apply):

      □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

      □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

       

      Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

      □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

      □ Other

      Describe the Change Being Requested:

       

       

      Describe the Reason for the Change:

       

       

      Describe all Alternatives Considered:

       

      Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

       

      Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

       

      Describe the Implications to Quality:

       

      Disposition:

      □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

      Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

       

       

      Change Board Approval:
      Name Signature Date

      Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

       

      No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

       

      Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

    • Project management plan updates - Schedule management plan
    • Project management plan updates - Cost baseline
    • Project documents updates - Activity attributes
    • Project documents updates - Assumption log
    • Project documents updates - Duration estimates
    • Project documents updates - Resource requirements
    • Project documents updates - Risk register
    • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register

    *The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.

 
6 Control Schedule
  • Work performance data
  • Project management plan - Schedule management plan
  • Project management plan - Schedule baseline
  • Project management plan - Scope baseline
  • Project management plan - Performance measurement baseline
  • Project documents - Schedule data
  • Project documents - Project calendars
  • Project documents - Project schedule
  • Project documents - Resource calendars
  • Project documents - Lessons learned register
  • Organizational process assets

    OPA’s (Organizational Process Assets) are, as the name suggests, assets of the performing organization. Not only the physical tools and equipment but the recorded experience and expertise that is documented for future projects.

    Two Camps of OPA’s

    ONE Processes, policies, and procedures

    TWO Organizational knowledge bases

     

    Templates, processes, procedures, policies, methods, lessons learned from previous projects or other endeavors, methodologies that are part of the current organization or project culture, are all OPA’s.

     

    OPA’s are used in all Process Groups and in every knowledge area. These assets assist the project manager to efficiently utilize the performing organization assets to the fullest. Utilization of these assets will improve quality, reduce cost, and improve productivity. OPA’s affects each knowledge area to improve productivity of the project manager and the project team.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

    Your company builds custom computers for large service companies. Your expertise in this field is recognized and sought after. Your competition is amazed at your ability to produce a quality product on a short schedule and at a very competitive price. What they don’t know is your OPA’s guide your team through all the planning and execution areas so that unnecessary and wasteful processes have been eliminated from the planning and production process.

     

    Through years of experience the performing organization has built up the OPA’s by improving each of the procedures and processes to be efficient and quality and cost effective.

     

    OPA’s are the things that your company considers assets to them uniquely. Proprietary information, lessons learned, tools, procedures that improve the likelihood of project success.

  • Project documents updates - Schedule forecasts
  • Work performance information
  • Project documents - Schedule forecasts
  • Change requests

    Change request forms are the primary project management tool used for requesting any changes to a specific project and are one piece of the change management process.  All project managers must manage change carefully and implement a thorough change control process to ensure projects remain within their approved constraints.  Some projects have many stakeholders with varying levels of interest in the project and change is an inevitable part of any project lifecycle.

     

    The change request form is filled out by the individual who identifies the need for a change and submitted to the project team in accordance with the change control process.  The project manager then leads the team in identifying the impacts of the change, whether it will benefit the project, and if it will allow the project to proceed within its approved constraints.  The request is then submitted to the change control board with the project team’s findings where it is reviewed and either approved, rejected, or deferred until clarification can be sought.

     

    If the change is approved, all project documentation must be updated accordingly, and the change must be communicated to all stakeholders.  Some changes may also require re-baselining of the costs, schedule, or scope.  There are many formats for change requests depending on the organization.

    Standard Change Request Template:

    Change Request
    Project: Date:
    Change Requestor: Change No:
    Change Category (Check all that apply):

    □ Schedule                   □ Cost                              □ Scope                 □ Requirements/Deliverables

    □ Testing/Quality         □ Resources

     

    Does this Change Affect (Check all that apply):

    □ Corrective Action     □ Preventative Action     □ Defect Repair    □ Updates

    □ Other

    Describe the Change Being Requested:

     

     

    Describe the Reason for the Change:

     

     

    Describe all Alternatives Considered:

     

    Describe any Technical Changes Required to Implement this Change:

     

    Describe Risks to be Considered for this Change:

     

    Estimate Resources and Costs Needed to Implement this Change:

     

    Describe the Implications to Quality:

     

    Disposition:

    □ Approve                    □ Reject                           □ Defer

    Justification of Approval, Rejection, or Deferral:

     

     

    Change Board Approval:
    Name Signature Date

    Are change requests done for 100% of changes?

     

    No! Some changes may be minor in nature and would only create voluminous unnecessary documentation. The Project manager or designate would make that decision.

     

    Even in the case that the change is not controlled through the “Perform integrated change control” It still needs to be documented and communicated to all affected stakeholders.

  • Project management plan updates - Performance measurement baseline
  • Project management plan updates - Schedule management plan
  • Project management plan updates - Schedule baseline
  • Project management plan updates - Cost baseline
  • Project documents updates - Project schedule
  • Project documents updates - Schedule data
  • Project documents updates - Basis of estimates
  • Project documents updates - Assumption log
  • Project documents updates - Resource calendars
  • Project documents updates - Risk register
  • Project documents updates - Lessons learned register

*The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

 
4 Cost