*Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.
*Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action rquired to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
*Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.
4Monitoring & Controlling
*Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.
*Those processes performed to finalize all activiities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.
*Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
1Develop Project Charter
The result or output of this process is the Project Charter. Once issued by the project initiator or sponsor, it brings the project to life and grants the PM authority and needed resources to kick off the project.
The purpose or justification for the project.
Summaries of the budget and milestone schedule.
High-level conditions or requirements.
High-level service/product characteristics and project description.
Assigned PM, responsibility, and authority.
Note: needed inputs to create the Project Charter include Project Statement of Work (SOW), Business Case, and Agreements, other sources may also include Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) and Organizational Process Assets (OPAs). (MAD 10/26/2015)
You are a PM (Project Manager) in a large company which employs a PMO (Project Management Office). You are asked to prepare a document that will describe and communicate the scope and potential benefits of a certain project. You as the PM will utilize a template project charter document to prepare a project charter for the sponsor and stakeholders to review and approve to start the project.
Once approved the project charter will not be updated, it will be utilized as an input document for other processes to start and develop the Project Management Plan, other subsidiary project plans and other important project documents.
The Develop Project Charter, once documented, is in essence the birth certificate of the project and constitutes the first document in the lifespan of the project. (MAD 10/24/2015)
The few processes that generate only one output: Develop Project Charter, Develop Project Management Plan, Plan Schedule management, Plan Cost management, Plan Human Resource Management, Plan Risk management, Identify Risk, Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis, Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, and Identify Stakeholders. (MAD 10/26/2015)
*The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
2Develop Project Management Plan
The “Project Management Plan” contains all the plans and baselines literally. This feature of the project management plan means that all the requirements for execution, monitoring and controlling and closing are spelled out in detail in this Record or File. The project management plan is not a project document by definition, Project Records and anything that is not called a plan or baseline.
The Project Management Plan is Progressively Elaborated or iteratively developed during the project. The term to use is “Progressively Elaborated”. There are nineteen (19) outputs of “Project Management Plan Updates”, the use of this output is to update any of the plans or baselines with more definitive information. Project Management Plan Updates is not used for project Changes. All changes use the output, “Change Request”. Change Requests are then processed through “Perform Integrated Change Control” process.
The Project Management Plan is a voluminous file. Examples on the internet are available and the size and scope is determined by the size and scope of the project itself.
There are many companies that continue to develop the project charter and utilize the project charter as the project management plan. For smaller projects this may serve the needs of the organization. Any project of size and complexity would be served better by following all the processes in the PMP process chart.
*The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.
3Direct & Manage Project Work
Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of ALL project physical work. This process includes all the work of the processes of the Execute Process Group.
The purpose of this process is to produce the deliverable as outlined in the Project Management Plan. One of the outputs of this process is indeed the “Deliverable“. All the work on the deliverable is done in this process, all other processes in the execute process group, support this process.
A second very important output here is “Work Performance Data“. All the data collected throughout the execution is contained in this output. This output becomes the input to Nine (9) other processes. All the processes in Monitoring and Controlling except those in the Integration Knowledge area.
Direct & Manage Project Work is the execution of the Project Management Plan.
Execution means the work on the deliverable. All the physical work is done here. Planning and Monitoring and Controlling is done in other process groups.
Direct & Manage Project Work is the only process where the deliverable is produced. All the work is done in execution. All approved change requests are implemented and completed in this process.
*The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.
4Manage Project Knowledge
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The process of using existing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the project objectives and contribute to organizational learning.
5Monitor & Control Project Work
Monitoring and Controlling the project is critical to project success. In this process we track, review, and report the progress. We need to be sensitive to the life-cycle of the project.
Collection and Reporting are the two main functions of this process. As reflected by the main output of “Work Performance Reports“.
The project manager is responsible for the collection and reporting of the project parameters. Tracking and evaluating the current state of the project and reporting the same to stakeholders is critical to project success.
Within this process we can act on items that are discovered that need to be changed, by using a change request.
But the biggest value of this process is to communicate the project life-cycle metrics to the team and stakeholders in the other processes, that can act on their critical areas of expertise, This is done through the “Work Performance Reports”.
*The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
6Perform Integrated Change Control
Perform integrated change control is a very active process in project management. If the 47 processes were a river the “Perform Integrated Change Control” process would be a whirlpool. All material changes to a project flow through this process.
Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change requests: approving changes and managing changes to deliverable’s, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan: and communicating their disposition.
Material changes to:
Organizational Process Assets
Project Management Plan
Discovery of a mistake in the scope of the project was discovered and rectification is required. A change request would be completed and sent to the CCB within the process (Perform integrated change control).
Changes may be requested by any stakeholder, but changes should be placed on a change request to be formally input into the perform integrated change control process. These procedures should be followed by all stakeholders and should be performed throughout the project life cycle.
*The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition.
7Close Project or Phase
The project manager must close all lose ends before he formally closes a project. The filing of the project files or documents should only be done when all these files have been properly reviewed and approved.
The deliverable should be delivered per the Project Management Plan, the details of the delivery should be spelled out. An easy hand-off, or a complex transition may be required. Success can be determined by this transition.
The key benefit of closing properly is to leave a trail of the project activities that can be followed by subsequent projects. Lessons learned is a valuable asset to the company. If a similar project occurs then these lessons learned will be critical to understanding the scope, schedule, cost, not to mention the other plans in all the knowledge areas.
The project just completed the “Validate Scope” process. The customer was pleased with the results and is pushing for delivery. Upon reviewing the delivery requirements in the project management plan it is noted that a two week testing period before delivery is required, to verify all the features of the deliverable are working.
The project manager will follow the plan as required. The customer will be advised and if any change is required it will be discussed and a change request will be completed and sent through “Perform Integrated Change Control”.
The change can be output in several processes.
This is one of the most important processes of a project. Why? In this process we leave a trail of breadcrumbs to the whole project. These closed file documents are the asset of the performing organization. These files are the only remnants of the project. They have incredible value.
Never treat this process lightly.
*The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.
*Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
1Plan Scope Management
The creation of a scope management plan is to provide guidance and direction on how the scope will be managed during the project.
The scope management plan is a subsidiary to the project management plan.
The project manager has seen alternatives to the project that have features different to the current project, He decides he wants to investigate the current scope, He first reviews the scope management plan for direction in his investigation.
Scope must be determined before any schedule or budget can be completed. Developing a scope statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary are critical to project success.
*The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.
Collect requirements is the process of collecting and documenting ALL stakeholder requirements. It is important to speak to all stakeholders when looking for these requirements. Even try to find things that the customer does not know he wants. Also look for alternatives to the requirements as this will also expose possible requirements.
Knowing all the requirements will assist in managing the project scope. These requirements will also help with scheduling and costing.
Requirements can be broken down into categories, to mention a few:
Part to Part requirements
Special skill requirements
The project manager is unfamiliar with the customer, so he has a meeting with the prior PM who has had dealing with the customer to determine any special needs the customer has required in the past. He also reviews the lessons learned to determine special circumstances in the last project with this customer.
Collect Requirements is the same as Voice of the Customer in Six Sigma or when doing the tool “Quality Function Deployment”.
The Industry and product must be taken into consideration when collecting requirements as there may be SME’s required.
*The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
*The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
*The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
*The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
*The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
*Project time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.
1Plan Schedule Management
*The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
*The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
*The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.
4Estimate Activity Durations
*The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
*The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.
*The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.
*Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
1Plan Cost Management
*The process that establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.
*The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.
*The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.
*The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.
*Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
1Plan Quality Management
*The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.
*The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
*The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
*Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.
1Plan Resource Management
*The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
2Estimate Activity Resources
*The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.
*The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities.
*The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.
*The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.
Control resources is the process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned, as well as monitoring the planned versus actual utilization of resources and taking corrective action as necessary.
*Project Communications Management. Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.
1Plan Communications Management
*The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available organizational assets.
*The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the Communication Management Plan.
*The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.
*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.
1Plan Risk Management
Plan Risk Management should be performed once the predefined point in the project have been defined. Also, the project scope should be well known. Without these two items, risk management would be difficult at best and we would be risk guessing.
The Plan Risk management process should be started when the project is in its infancy, and completed early in the project. Identifying is an onging activity throughout the project.
This process lends itself to a template. If the performing organization does similar projects this is especially true.
Risk analysis should be looked at by knowledge area. Are there Scope risks, Schedule risks, Cost risks, and so forth. Looking in these areas will expose risks in all other areas of the project.
Most Project Managers do a poor job of planning for risk management activities, They wait till a risk occurs then start the review. If scheduled risk management activities are planned in advance and communicated to those subject matter experts required. The proactive planning is more likely to be accomplished.
*The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
*The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.
3Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
*The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
4Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
*The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.
5Plan Risk Responses
*The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.
6Implement Risk Responses
*The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.
*Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.
1Plan Procurement Management
*The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
The key benefit of this process is that it select a qualified seller and implements the legal agreement for delivery. The end results of the process are the established agreements including formal contracts .
*The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
*The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.
*Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.
This process frequently occurs for the first time in a project either prior to or at the same time of the project charter is developed and approved. It is repeated as necessary, but should be performed at the start of each phase and when a significant change in the project or the organization occurs. Each time the identification process is repeated, the project management plan components and project documents should be consulted to identify relevant project stakeholders.
The key benefit to the PM is that it allows the project manager to identify the appropriate focus for each stakeholder or group of stakeholders.
This process is the first pass at analyzing the stakeholders. The second pass is in plan stakeholder engagement, In identify stakeholders we determine those stakeholders who can assist the project and those that can not assist us or hold us back. Are they supporters or resisters? This must be completed right after the project charter is signed. A Template of a stakeholder register is a good idea to assist in its creation,
Having a meeting with the sponsor and customer would go a long way in identifying the stakeholders. Reviewing the contract, schematics, blueprints, and other scope documentation will assist in identifying SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) to bring into the stakeholder pool.
Not knowing or understanding your stakeholders expectations immediately, can be a big mistake. If the right stakeholder is not on board it could effect the project negatively and also slow progress on the project.
*The process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project; and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, inter-dependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success. This process is performed periodically during the project as needed.
2Plan Stakeholder Engagement
*The process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success.
3Manage Stakeholder Engagement
*The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.
4Monitor Stakeholder Engagement
*The process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.
*Products, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria.
*Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
*The quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity.
*A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
*The process of calling public attention to a project or effort.
Any document or communication between two or more parties that defines the arrangement between the parties. This can be verbal or a complex contract. There are several agreements or contracts used in the project management life cycle.
*A technique used to evaluate identified options In order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.
*A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
*A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
*Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
*A review of the change requests to verify that these were implemented as approved.
*A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved
*A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.
Schedule and Cost performance may indicate the need to revise the way duration, cost, or resource estimates are developed.
*Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
*The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
*A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
*A documented economic feasibility study used to establish validity of the benefits of the selected component, lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities.
*Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.
A change request document is required, and completed, when changes are made to the project. Example of changes are: Changes in execution of the deliverable, Corrective action, preventive action, defect repair, Material changes to all plans or documents, lastly any baseline change.
*The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
*Project contracts or other procurement agreements that have been formally acknowledged by the proper authorizing agent as being finalized and signed off.
*An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
*A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
*A description, analogy or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
*Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
*An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
*Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflictual situation to achieve a resolution.
*The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
*Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project's WBS or for a given cost control account.
*The approved version of the time-phased project budge, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
*A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
*A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
*A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
*A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
*Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
*A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.
*Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding.
*An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements.
*The process of gathering a corpus of information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.
*A methodology that combines scope, schedule, cost, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress.
*Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio.
As a result of develop project team and manage project team there may be a need to update organization performance appraisals and personel skill requirements.
*Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.
*An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.
Facilitation Techniques are brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving and any other communication or colaboration technique that assists the development of the Project Charter or Project Management Plan.
Transition or delivery of the deliverable that was the object of the project. It must be delivered as required by the project management plan.
*An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
*An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the project's past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
*The process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures.
*Expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
*Techniques that are used to generate ideas within a group of stakeholders.
*Techniques to assess multiple alternatives that will be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements.
Historical Relationships are used to find values to be used in parametric estimating, or analogous estimates.
A process of preparing one's own estimate or obtaining one from a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule, or other items.
*Repeatable processes used to assemble and organize data across a spectrum of sources.
*Facilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format.
*Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements. Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria.
*A process to observe performance of contracted work or a promised product against agreed-upon requirements.
*Ability to establish and maintain relationships with other people.
*A formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
*A project document used to document and monitor elements under discussion or in dispute between project stakeholders.
*Lead is the amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity. Lag is the amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.
*The ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals.
*The process of gathering information at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities.
Meetings are held to discuss and exchange information. Using the tools of Brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique and the Delphi Technique, teams can evaluate and cusomize their project reqirements to manage each project situation or requirement.
*A list identifying all project milestones and normally indicates whether the milestone is mandatory or optional.
Modeling Techniques, are "What-if Scenario Analysis" and "Simulation" which usually means the Monte Carlo Analysis. This is looking at different durations from different activities and determining the different schedule lengths.
*This technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.
*The process and activities to resolving disputes through consultations between involved parties.
*Establishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations.
*A technique that provides a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment performing their jobs or tasks and carrying out processes.
The best way to understand the attitudes and involvement of the team members is to be close to them. By observing and conversing the manager can know how involved each team member is in the project and in the goals of the delivery of the deliverable.
Organizational charts and postion descriptions, can be in hierarchical, matrix or written form.
*Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.
Any organizational process asset can be updated as a result of this process.
Organizational Theory is using the tools provided by experts in team development. How do people, groups, and teams react, and work together given certain situations; and how to promote appropriate behavier.
“Outputs from other processes” are all the Plans, Baselines, that are produced during the Project.
*An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
*The system used to provide and track supplier's invoices and payments for services and products.
*The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.
*A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.
Assessing project team members strengths and weaknesses. Using interviews, attitudinal surveys, ability tests, and industry specific knowledge tests to determine competency in providing the service required by the project team member.
Project team members are sometimes assigned in advance of the project charter or in the project charter, either by the sponsor, customer request, or the assigned project manager. These team members are considered pre-assigned.
*A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
*A grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
*A subsidiary plan of the project management plan. It details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities that enhance their value.
*The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer's Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal, and seller's responses.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization.
All terms and conditions are discussed prior to signing a contract or purchase order. Scope, schedule, and cost are the primary contract points to be discussed. Payment terms, and all other pertinant conditions to the purchase are also discussed in colaborative negotiations.
*A structured review of the seller's progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract.
*Describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results.
*For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, charcteristics, and other relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured.
*A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities.
*A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Communications between stakeholders. These can be in any form, written, verbal, formal or informal.
*Forecast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.
*An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.
Any change to the project management plan would go through the organizations's change control process via a change request. Any component of the project management plan may require a change request as a result of this process.
Software developed to help plan and organize project and activity resources.
Project Team members have performance reviews, to receive feedback and to receive guidence as to their roles and resposibilities, authority level. They also can colaborate on unresolved issues and receive training, and discuss goals.
*An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.
*A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.
*Project Team member staff assignments. This output is the product of "Aquire Project Team". A listing or directory should be maintained for large project teams.
*A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.
*The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.
*A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
Using the Industry publications to find production rates or units of cost to assist in determining the time involved or resources required to complete a task or several tasks.
*A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.
*The documented results of control quality activities. The quality control measurements that document the results of Control Quality activities and demonstrate compliance with the quality requirements.
*They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how an organization's quality policies will be implemented.
*A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
*Commonly used techniques for both event-oriented and project-oriented analysis approaches.
*Written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.
Recognition of rewarding project team members and team performance is a part of team development. Planning and executing recognition and rewards will improve team confidence and performance.
*A specific set of processes, related control functions, and tools that are consolidated and combined to record and retain information about the project.
*A description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
*A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
*An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
*Examination and documentation of the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.
*Organization by sources of risk (e.g., using the RBS), the area of the project affected (e.g., using the WBS), or other useful category (e.g., project phase) to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.
*Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.
*A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.
Assessing the likelihood that a risk or opportunity could happen. Analysis is made between the event, and the probability, and impact metrics.
*Risk reassessment is the identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated.
*A document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded.
*Review and determination of the timing of actions that may need to occur sooner than other risk items.
*An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
*The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
*Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.
The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes, at a minimum, the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified asumptions and constraints.
*Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is calculated.
*A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.
*The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities. See also, backward pass, critical path method, critical chain method, and resource leveling.
*A tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method.
*The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
*A component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified.
*The sellers which have been selected to provide a contracted set of services or products.
*Formal responses from sellers to a request for proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization that, if accepted, would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement.
*A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for planning, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization.
*A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.
*A project document including the identificaiton, assessment, and classification of project stakeholders.
Stratagies for dealing with negative risks or threats that can threaten the project.
The strategies for taking advantage of all positive risks or opportunities.
*Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option.
Activities that help the project team to work well together. If team members work well together they will collaborate better and make better decisions.
Compares the actual technical performance against the plan technical performace as measured by the baselines. Also actual quality vs the scope baseline. Metrics are required to acertain the level of performance.
*A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
*A measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.
Training is providing education or training that will improve performance of a team member or the project team as a whole.
Validated Changes are Approved Changes that have been implemented in "Direct and Manage Project Work". In control quality we audit the work of the change to verify it has been completed as approved through the "Perform Integrated Change Control" process.
*A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
*An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from the baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods' data and projecting how much that parameter's variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.